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Language: Proto-Ainu

Source/Author:  Alexander Vovin 
Notes:  Vovin, Alexander. 1993. A Reconstruction of Proto-Ainu. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Prosodic information for the proto-forms is given in the annotation column. They are marked by:

H = high
L = low 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 223
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 1
 
Classification:  Isolate 
Map 
 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 4 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
8 to turn word info      
10 dirty      
12 skin      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
21 to think      
41 to bite      
42 to suck      
69 to hunt word info      
74 to kill      
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info      
84 to plant      
89 to hold word info      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
100 wing      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
113 branch word info      
127 woods/forest      
134 thunder      
150 yellow      
155 long word info      
159 wide      
161 shy, ashamed      
166 correct, true      
172 to climb word info      
173 at      
181 where? word info      
184 he/she      
185 we word info      
187 they      
190 other      
191 all      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count      
208 Fifty word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
1 hand *askE HL    
1 hand *mOn possible form: *mon ?    
2 left *gar=ke H-L    
3 right *sii HL, possible forms: *gii ~ *hii ?    
4 leg/foot *kEma LL    
4 leg/foot *tikir LH, < *ti=kir ?    
4 leg/foot *urE LL, 'foot'    
5 to walk *apkas HL    
6 road/path *truu      
7 to come *Eg singular    
7 to come *sa= 'to come, go out' (Jap deru)    
9 to swim *maa      
11 dust *pa[s]na LH, 'dust', 'dirt'    
11 dust *sirma HL, 'dust', 'dirt', possible forms: *girma ~ *hirma ?    
13 back word info *Osma=k HL    
13 back word info *sEtur LL    
14 belly *gOn L, 'belly', 'stomach'    
14 belly *pisE LH, 'stomach'    
15 bone *kEqu LL    
15 bone *ponE < *PJap *pone [LL] 'bone'    
16 intestines *kankan HL    
16 intestines *tuy L, 'belly', 'intestines'    
17 liver *ra H, possible form: *da ?    
18 breast *tOO[C] HH    
19 shoulder *kup H, 'shoulder'    
19 shoulder *tap L, 'shoulder', 'upper arm'    
22 to fear *sitOma LLH, possible forms: *gitOma ~ *hitOma ?    
23 blood *kEm L    
24 head *pa L    
24 head *sa H    
25 neck *dE=kut L-L    
26 hair word info *EtOp LL    
26 hair word info *numa LL    
27 nose *Etu LL    
28 to breathe *gEEsE HLL    
29 to sniff, smell *rak      
30 mouth *prAA= L    
31 tooth *ima(=)k L(-)L    
31 tooth *nii      
32 tongue *agu LL    
33 to laugh *miina HLL    
34 to cry *tis      
35 to vomit *atu LH    
36 to spit *top(=)sE H(-)L    
37 to eat *EE      
38 to chew word info *kuy      
39 to cook word info *su(=)gE ~ *su(=)kE L(-)H, possible form: *su(=)qE ?    
40 to drink *kuu      
43 ear *kisAr LL    
44 to hear *nuu 'to hear', 'to listen'    
45 eye *sik L, possible forms: *gik ~ *hik ?    
45 eye *nuu HL, 'eye'    
46 to see *nu=kar L-H    
47 to yawn *maqu=s=Ok HL-L    
48 to sleep *mO L    
49 to lie down word info *gOt=kE H-L    
50 to dream *takar LH    
50 to dream *tarap LH    
50 to dream *tinita LLH    
51 to sit *aa singular    
51 to sit *rOk plural, possible form: *dOk ?    
52 to stand *as singular    
52 to stand *rOs=ki plural, HL    
53 person/human being *aynu HL, < *a(n)=inu ?    
53 person/human being *kur      
54 man/male *Okkay(O) HL(L)    
55 woman/female *mat L, 'woman', 'wife'    
56 child *hEkati LLH    
56 child *pOO HL, 'son', 'child'    
57 husband *hOku LL    
58 wife *mat L, 'woman', 'wife'    
59 mother *gaa(=)pO HH(-)L    
59 mother *nOrnO ~ *narna      
59 mother *unu LH    
60 father *aatya LLH    
60 father *miti HL    
60 father *Ona LH, possible form: *ona ?    
61 house *tisE LH    
62 thatch/roof *kitay LH    
63 name *dEE HL    
64 to say *i=EE L-HL    
65 rope *tus L    
66 to tie up, fasten *köt= L    
66 to tie up, fasten *sïn(=)a L(-)H, possible forms: *gïn(=)a ~ *hïn(=)a ?    
67 to sew word info *nïn=u L-H    
68 needle *kem L    
70 to shoot word info *E=ak L-H    
70 to shoot word info *tukan LH    
70 to shoot word info *tyOrtya 'to shoot (from the bow)', 'to hit (the mark)'    
71 to stab, pierce *tiqu      
72 to hit word info *kik      
73 to steal *ihka HL    
75 to die, be dead *day H    
76 to live, be alive *gik(=)nu H-L; possible forms: *sik(=)nu ~ *hik(=)nu ?    
77 to scratch word info *kiiki LLH, < *kii=kii ?    
78 to cut, hack word info *pët=u L-H, 'to cut', 'to split'    
79 stick/wood *nii 'tree'    
79 stick/wood *tiku= LL, 'tree'    
80 to split word info *pEr= L    
81 sharp *E(=)qEn L(-)H; possible form: *E(=)gEn ?    
85 to choose *num=kE H-L    
86 to grow word info *=tuk= L    
86 to grow word info *gik(=)up L-H, possible forms: *sik(=)up ~ *hik(=)up ?    
87 to swell word info *gup L    
88 to squeeze word info *num= L    
90 to dig *=ür= L    
91 to buy *gOk      
92 to open, uncover *m[r]Ak= H    
95 to fall word info *tyuk L    
95 to fall word info *gaatir HLL    
96 dog *gita LH (< *LL ?)    
97 bird *ti= L    
98 egg *nOk L, 'egg', 'testicles'    
99 feather *trAp L    
101 to fly *paar=aC=sE to fly    
101 to fly *hO=pun=i L-L-H, singular, 'to fly', 'to get up'    
102 rat *Erum HH    
103 meat/flesh *kam L    
104 fat/grease *kirpu HL, 'fat', 'grease'    
104 fat/grease *kEE 'oil (as food)', 'fat'    
104 fat/grease *sum 'oil (as food)'    
105 tail *sAr L, 'tail'    
105 tail *is L, 'bird's tail'    
106 snake *Oyaqu LHL    
106 snake *tOkkOni HLL    
107 worm (earthworm) *imO(=)k LH, 'earthworm'    
107 worm (earthworm) *kiki(=)r LH, 'worm', 'insect', 'bug'    
108 louse word info *ki      
111 fish *tiqEp LL    
112 rotten word info *gOr=sE H-L    
112 rotten word info *munin LH    
114 leaf *hrA= L    
115 root *=rit      
116 flower *Epuy LH, 'sprout, bud, flower'    
116 flower *nOrnO HL    
117 fruit *num L    
118 grass *mun '[inedible] grass'    
118 grass *kina LH, '[edible] grass'    
119 earth/soil *tOy      
120 stone *pOqina 'stone'    
120 stone *sirar LH, 'rock', possible forms: *girar ~ hirar ?    
120 stone *suma LH, 'stone'    
120 stone *hdatara LLH, 'stone', 'cliff'    
121 sand *Ota LH    
122 water word info *hdak=ka H-L    
122 water word info *pE H, 'sap', 'water'    
123 to flow *mOm      
124 sea *atuy LL    
125 salt *sippO HL, 'salt'    
125 salt *rur=nu H-L, 'to be salty', possible form: *dur=nu ?    
126 lake *tOO      
128 sky *kantO HL    
128 sky *nis H, 'sky', 'cloud'    
129 moon *tiqu(=)p 'moon', 'month', 'sun'    
130 star *kEta LH    
130 star *nOOti(=)qu      
131 cloud word info *nis H, 'sky', 'cloud'    
132 fog *Huurar HLL    
133 rain *aptO HL    
135 lightning *imEru LLH    
136 wind *dEEra HLL    
137 to blow word info *uku LH    
138 warm word info *sEEsEk HLL, 'to grow hot', 'to be hot'    
139 cold word info *mEE=      
140 dry word info *sat H    
141 wet *tOn(=)rE H(-)L, 'to get wet'    
142 heavy *paasE HLL    
143 fire *apE LH, < *apOy ?    
143 fire *unti HL, uncommon form    
144 to burn word info *uguy LH    
145 smoke word info *sipuya LLH, 'smoke', possible forms: *gipuya ~ *hipuya ?    
145 smoke word info *paa HL, 'steam', 'smoke'    
146 ash *uu[y]na HLL    
147 black *kur= H, < Old Jap. kurwo= ?    
148 white *dE(=)tar L(-)H    
149 red *guurE HLL    
151 green *siqunin HLL, 'green / blue', possible forms: *giqunin ~ *hiqunin    
152 small *pOn      
153 big *pOrO LH    
154 short word info *tak      
156 thin word info *kap=ar L-H, 'to be thin (and flat)'    
157 thick word info *irOr=nE LH-L, 'to be thick (and flat)'; possible form: *irOt=nE ?    
158 narrow *gop=nE H-L    
160 painful, sick *arka HL, 'painful'    
160 painful, sick *tasum LH, 'to get sick'    
162 old word info *Or=nE H-L    
163 new *asir LH    
164 good *pir(=)ka H(-)L    
165 bad, evil *hdEn      
167 night *an      
168 day *tOO      
169 year *paa HL, 'year', 'age'    
170 when? word info *gEm=pa=ra      
171 to hide word info *nuyna transitive, < *nu=ina ?    
174 in, inside *ma=k H    
174 in, inside *Or L    
175 above *ka L, 'on', 'above'    
176 below *prO=k L    
177 this *ta= L    
178 that *to= L    
179 near *gan=kE H-L    
180 far *tuyma HL    
182 I *ku= L    
182 I *an= ~ *a=      
183 thou *E= L    
186 you *Eti= LL    
188 what? word info *gEm=an=ta L-H-L    
189 who? word info *gu[n]na HL    
189 who? word info nEE= LH    
197 One word info *si=nE= LH, possible forms: *gi=nE= ~ *hi=nE= ?    
198 Two word info *tuu=      
199 Three word info *dE=      
200 Four word info *ii=nE= HL-L    
200 Four word info *pOqOn (?), uncommon form    
201 Five word info *aski ~ *asik HL, LH (respectively)    
202 Six word info *ii=hdan= lit. 'four-ten'    
203 Seven word info *a=d[E]=hdan lit. 'three-ten'    
204 Eight word info *tu=pE=hdan lit. 'two-ten'    
205 Nine word info *si=nE=pE=hdan lit. 'one-ten'    
206 Ten word info *hdan= H    
207 Twenty word info *gOt      
209 One Hundred word info *ik      
1 hand *tE(=)k L   L

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