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Language: Proto-Ainu

Source/Author:  Alexander Vovin 
Notes:  Vovin, Alexander. 1993. A Reconstruction of Proto-Ainu. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Prosodic information for the proto-forms is given in the annotation column. They are marked by:

H = high
L = low 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 223
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 1
 
Classification:  Isolate 
Map 
 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 4 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
8 to turn word info      
10 dirty      
12 skin      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
21 to think      
41 to bite      
42 to suck      
69 to hunt word info      
74 to kill      
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info      
84 to plant      
89 to hold word info      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
100 wing      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
113 branch word info      
127 woods/forest      
134 thunder      
150 yellow      
155 long word info      
159 wide      
161 shy, ashamed      
166 correct, true      
172 to climb word info      
173 at      
181 where? word info      
184 he/she      
185 we word info      
187 they      
190 other      
191 all      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count      
208 Fifty word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
115 root *=rit      
86 to grow word info *=tuk= L    
90 to dig *=ür= L    
81 sharp *E(=)qEn L(-)H; possible form: *E(=)gEn ?    
183 thou *E= L    
70 to shoot word info *E=ak L-H    
37 to eat *EE      
7 to come *Eg singular    
116 flower *Epuy LH, 'sprout, bud, flower'    
102 rat *Erum HH    
26 hair word info *EtOp LL    
186 you *Eti= LL    
27 nose *Etu LL    
132 fog *Huurar HLL    
54 man/male *Okkay(O) HL(L)    
60 father *Ona LH, possible form: *ona ?    
174 in, inside *Or L    
162 old word info *Or=nE H-L    
13 back word info *Osma=k HL    
121 sand *Ota LH    
106 snake *Oyaqu LHL    
203 Seven word info *a=d[E]=hdan lit. 'three-ten'    
51 to sit *aa singular    
60 father *aatya LLH    
32 tongue *agu LL    
167 night *an      
182 I *an= ~ *a=      
143 fire *apE LH, < *apOy ?    
5 to walk *apkas HL    
133 rain *aptO HL    
160 painful, sick *arka HL, 'painful'    
52 to stand *as singular    
163 new *asir LH    
1 hand *askE HL    
201 Five word info *aski ~ *asik HL, LH (respectively)    
35 to vomit *atu LH    
124 sea *atuy LL    
53 person/human being *aynu HL, < *a(n)=inu ?    
148 white *dE(=)tar L(-)H    
199 Three word info *dE=      
25 neck *dE=kut L-L    
63 name *dEE HL    
136 wind *dEEra HLL    
75 to die, be dead *day H    
28 to breathe *gEEsE HLL    
188 what? word info *gEm=an=ta L-H-L    
170 when? word info *gEm=pa=ra      
91 to buy *gOk      
14 belly *gOn L, 'belly', 'stomach'    
112 rotten word info *gOr=sE H-L    
207 Twenty word info *gOt      
49 to lie down word info *gOt=kE H-L    
59 mother *gaa(=)pO HH(-)L    
95 to fall word info *gaatir HLL    
179 near *gan=kE H-L    
2 left *gar=ke H-L    
76 to live, be alive *gik(=)nu H-L; possible forms: *sik(=)nu ~ *hik(=)nu ?    
86 to grow word info *gik(=)up L-H, possible forms: *sik(=)up ~ *hik(=)up ?    
96 dog *gita LH (< *LL ?)    
158 narrow *gop=nE H-L    
189 who? word info *gu[n]na HL    
87 to swell word info *gup L    
149 red *guurE HLL    
56 child *hEkati LLH    
101 to fly *hO=pun=i L-L-H, singular, 'to fly', 'to get up'    
57 husband *hOku LL    
165 bad, evil *hdEn      
122 water word info *hdak=ka H-L    
206 Ten word info *hdan= H    
120 stone *hdatara LLH, 'stone', 'cliff'    
114 leaf *hrA= L    
64 to say *i=EE L-HL    
73 to steal *ihka HL    
202 Six word info *ii=hdan= lit. 'four-ten'    
200 Four word info *ii=nE= HL-L    
209 One Hundred word info *ik      
135 lightning *imEru LLH    
107 worm (earthworm) *imO(=)k LH, 'earthworm'    
31 tooth *ima(=)k L(-)L    
157 thick word info *irOr=nE LH-L, 'to be thick (and flat)'; possible form: *irOt=nE ?    
105 tail *is L, 'bird's tail'    
104 fat/grease *kEE 'oil (as food)', 'fat'    
23 blood *kEm L    
4 leg/foot *kEma LL    
15 bone *kEqu LL    
130 star *kEta LH    
175 above *ka L, 'on', 'above'    
103 meat/flesh *kam L    
16 intestines *kankan HL    
128 sky *kantO HL    
156 thin word info *kap=ar L-H, 'to be thin (and flat)'    
68 needle *kem L    
108 louse word info *ki      
77 to scratch word info *kiiki LLH, < *kii=kii ?    
72 to hit word info *kik      
107 worm (earthworm) *kiki(=)r LH, 'worm', 'insect', 'bug'    
118 grass *kina LH, '[edible] grass'    
104 fat/grease *kirpu HL, 'fat', 'grease'    
43 ear *kisAr LL    
62 thatch/roof *kitay LH    
182 I *ku= L    
19 shoulder *kup H, 'shoulder'    
53 person/human being *kur      
147 black *kur= H, < Old Jap. kurwo= ?    
40 to drink *kuu      
38 to chew word info *kuy      
66 to tie up, fasten *köt= L    
139 cold word info *mEE=      
48 to sleep *mO L    
123 to flow *mOm      
1 hand *mOn possible form: *mon ?    
92 to open, uncover *m[r]Ak= H    
174 in, inside *ma=k H    
9 to swim *maa      
47 to yawn *maqu=s=Ok HL-L    
55 woman/female *mat L, 'woman', 'wife'    
58 wife *mat L, 'woman', 'wife'    
33 to laugh *miina HLL    
60 father *miti HL    
118 grass *mun '[inedible] grass'    
112 rotten word info *munin LH    
130 star *nOOti(=)qu      
98 egg *nOk L, 'egg', 'testicles'    
116 flower *nOrnO HL    
59 mother *nOrnO ~ *narna      
31 tooth *nii      
79 stick/wood *nii 'tree'    
128 sky *nis H, 'sky', 'cloud'    
131 cloud word info *nis H, 'sky', 'cloud'    
46 to see *nu=kar L-H    
117 fruit *num L    
88 to squeeze word info *num= L    
85 to choose *num=kE H-L    
26 hair word info *numa LL    
44 to hear *nuu 'to hear', 'to listen'    
45 eye *nuu HL, 'eye'    
171 to hide word info *nuyna transitive, < *nu=ina ?    
67 to sew word info *nïn=u L-H    
122 water word info *pE H, 'sap', 'water'    
80 to split word info *pEr= L    
56 child *pOO HL, 'son', 'child'    
152 small *pOn      
200 Four word info *pOqOn (?), uncommon form    
120 stone *pOqina 'stone'    
153 big *pOrO LH    
24 head *pa L    
11 dust *pa[s]na LH, 'dust', 'dirt'    
145 smoke word info *paa HL, 'steam', 'smoke'    
169 year *paa HL, 'year', 'age'    
101 to fly *paar=aC=sE to fly    
142 heavy *paasE HLL    
164 good *pir(=)ka H(-)L    
14 belly *pisE LH, 'stomach'    
15 bone *ponE < *PJap *pone [LL] 'bone'    
30 mouth *prAA= L    
176 below *prO=k L    
78 to cut, hack word info *pët=u L-H, 'to cut', 'to split'    
51 to sit *rOk plural, possible form: *dOk ?    
52 to stand *rOs=ki plural, HL    
17 liver *ra H, possible form: *da ?    
29 to sniff, smell *rak      
125 salt *rur=nu H-L, 'to be salty', possible form: *dur=nu ?    
105 tail *sAr L, 'tail'    
138 warm word info *sEEsEk HLL, 'to grow hot', 'to be hot'    
13 back word info *sEtur LL    
24 head *sa H    
7 to come *sa= 'to come, go out' (Jap deru)    
140 dry word info *sat H    
197 One word info *si=nE= LH, possible forms: *gi=nE= ~ *hi=nE= ?    
205 Nine word info *si=nE=pE=hdan lit. 'one-ten'    
3 right *sii HL, possible forms: *gii ~ *hii ?    
45 eye *sik L, possible forms: *gik ~ *hik ?    
125 salt *sippO HL, 'salt'    
145 smoke word info *sipuya LLH, 'smoke', possible forms: *gipuya ~ *hipuya ?    
151 green *siqunin HLL, 'green / blue', possible forms: *giqunin ~ *hiqunin    
120 stone *sirar LH, 'rock', possible forms: *girar ~ hirar ?    
11 dust *sirma HL, 'dust', 'dirt', possible forms: *girma ~ *hirma ?    
22 to fear *sitOma LLH, possible forms: *gitOma ~ *hitOma ?    
39 to cook word info *su(=)gE ~ *su(=)kE L(-)H, possible form: *su(=)qE ?    
104 fat/grease *sum 'oil (as food)'    
120 stone *suma LH, 'stone'    
66 to tie up, fasten *sïn(=)a L(-)H, possible forms: *gïn(=)a ~ *hïn(=)a ?    
1 hand *tE(=)k L   L
126 lake *tOO      
168 day *tOO      
18 breast *tOO[C] HH    
106 snake *tOkkOni HLL    
141 wet *tOn(=)rE H(-)L, 'to get wet'    
119 earth/soil *tOy      
177 this *ta= L    
154 short word info *tak      
50 to dream *takar LH    
19 shoulder *tap L, 'shoulder', 'upper arm'    
50 to dream *tarap LH    
160 painful, sick *tasum LH, 'to get sick'    
97 bird *ti= L    
4 leg/foot *tikir LH, < *ti=kir ?    
79 stick/wood *tiku= LL, 'tree'    
50 to dream *tinita LLH    
111 fish *tiqEp LL    
71 to stab, pierce *tiqu      
129 moon *tiqu(=)p 'moon', 'month', 'sun'    
34 to cry *tis      
61 house *tisE LH    
178 that *to= L    
36 to spit *top(=)sE H(-)L    
99 feather *trAp L    
6 road/path *truu      
204 Eight word info *tu=pE=hdan lit. 'two-ten'    
70 to shoot word info *tukan LH    
65 rope *tus L    
198 Two word info *tuu=      
16 intestines *tuy L, 'belly', 'intestines'    
180 far *tuyma HL    
70 to shoot word info *tyOrtya 'to shoot (from the bow)', 'to hit (the mark)'    
95 to fall word info *tyuk L    
144 to burn word info *uguy LH    
137 to blow word info *uku LH    
143 fire *unti HL, uncommon form    
59 mother *unu LH    
4 leg/foot *urE LL, 'foot'    
146 ash *uu[y]na HLL    
189 who? word info nEE= LH    

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