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Language: Proto-Ainu

Source/Author:  Alexander Vovin 
Notes:  Vovin, Alexander. 1993. A Reconstruction of Proto-Ainu. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Prosodic information for the proto-forms is given in the annotation column. They are marked by:

H = high
L = low 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 223
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 1
 
Classification:  Isolate 
Map 
 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 4 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
8 to turn word info      
10 dirty      
12 skin      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
21 to think      
41 to bite      
42 to suck      
69 to hunt word info      
74 to kill      
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info      
84 to plant      
89 to hold word info      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
100 wing      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
113 branch word info      
127 woods/forest      
134 thunder      
150 yellow      
155 long word info      
159 wide      
161 shy, ashamed      
166 correct, true      
172 to climb word info      
173 at      
181 where? word info      
184 he/she      
185 we word info      
187 they      
190 other      
191 all      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count      
208 Fifty word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
6 road/path *truu      
9 to swim *maa      
29 to sniff, smell *rak      
31 tooth *nii      
34 to cry *tis      
37 to eat *EE      
38 to chew word info *kuy      
40 to drink *kuu      
53 person/human being *kur      
59 mother *nOrnO ~ *narna      
71 to stab, pierce *tiqu      
72 to hit word info *kik      
91 to buy *gOk      
108 louse word info *ki      
115 root *=rit      
119 earth/soil *tOy      
123 to flow *mOm      
126 lake *tOO      
130 star *nOOti(=)qu      
139 cold word info *mEE=      
152 small *pOn      
154 short word info *tak      
165 bad, evil *hdEn      
167 night *an      
168 day *tOO      
170 when? word info *gEm=pa=ra      
182 I *an= ~ *a=      
198 Two word info *tuu=      
199 Three word info *dE=      
207 Twenty word info *gOt      
209 One Hundred word info *ik      
129 moon *tiqu(=)p 'moon', 'month', 'sun'    
104 fat/grease *sum 'oil (as food)'    
104 fat/grease *kEE 'oil (as food)', 'fat'    
120 stone *pOqina 'stone'    
7 to come *sa= 'to come, go out' (Jap deru)    
44 to hear *nuu 'to hear', 'to listen'    
70 to shoot word info *tyOrtya 'to shoot (from the bow)', 'to hit (the mark)'    
79 stick/wood *nii 'tree'    
118 grass *mun '[inedible] grass'    
200 Four word info *pOqOn (?), uncommon form    
15 bone *ponE < *PJap *pone [LL] 'bone'    
24 head *sa H    
75 to die, be dead *day H    
92 to open, uncover *m[r]Ak= H    
140 dry word info *sat H    
174 in, inside *ma=k H    
206 Ten word info *hdan= H    
36 to spit *top(=)sE H(-)L    
164 good *pir(=)ka H(-)L    
141 wet *tOn(=)rE H(-)L, 'to get wet'    
122 water word info *pE H, 'sap', 'water'    
19 shoulder *kup H, 'shoulder'    
128 sky *nis H, 'sky', 'cloud'    
131 cloud word info *nis H, 'sky', 'cloud'    
147 black *kur= H, < Old Jap. kurwo= ?    
17 liver *ra H, possible form: *da ?    
2 left *gar=ke H-L    
49 to lie down word info *gOt=kE H-L    
85 to choose *num=kE H-L    
112 rotten word info *gOr=sE H-L    
122 water word info *hdak=ka H-L    
158 narrow *gop=nE H-L    
162 old word info *Or=nE H-L    
179 near *gan=kE H-L    
125 salt *rur=nu H-L, 'to be salty', possible form: *dur=nu ?    
76 to live, be alive *gik(=)nu H-L; possible forms: *sik(=)nu ~ *hik(=)nu ?    
18 breast *tOO[C] HH    
102 rat *Erum HH    
59 mother *gaa(=)pO HH(-)L    
1 hand *askE HL    
5 to walk *apkas HL    
13 back word info *Osma=k HL    
16 intestines *kankan HL    
60 father *miti HL    
63 name *dEE HL    
73 to steal *ihka HL    
116 flower *nOrnO HL    
128 sky *kantO HL    
133 rain *aptO HL    
180 far *tuyma HL    
189 who? word info *gu[n]na HL    
54 man/male *Okkay(O) HL(L)    
11 dust *sirma HL, 'dust', 'dirt', possible forms: *girma ~ *hirma ?    
45 eye *nuu HL, 'eye'    
104 fat/grease *kirpu HL, 'fat', 'grease'    
160 painful, sick *arka HL, 'painful'    
125 salt *sippO HL, 'salt'    
56 child *pOO HL, 'son', 'child'    
145 smoke word info *paa HL, 'steam', 'smoke'    
169 year *paa HL, 'year', 'age'    
53 person/human being *aynu HL, < *a(n)=inu ?    
201 Five word info *aski ~ *asik HL, LH (respectively)    
3 right *sii HL, possible forms: *gii ~ *hii ?    
143 fire *unti HL, uncommon form    
47 to yawn *maqu=s=Ok HL-L    
200 Four word info *ii=nE= HL-L    
28 to breathe *gEEsE HLL    
33 to laugh *miina HLL    
95 to fall word info *gaatir HLL    
106 snake *tOkkOni HLL    
132 fog *Huurar HLL    
136 wind *dEEra HLL    
142 heavy *paasE HLL    
146 ash *uu[y]na HLL    
149 red *guurE HLL    
151 green *siqunin HLL, 'green / blue', possible forms: *giqunin ~ *hiqunin    
138 warm word info *sEEsEk HLL, 'to grow hot', 'to be hot'    
1 hand *tE(=)k L   L
23 blood *kEm L    
24 head *pa L    
30 mouth *prAA= L    
48 to sleep *mO L    
65 rope *tus L    
66 to tie up, fasten *köt= L    
68 needle *kem L    
80 to split word info *pEr= L    
86 to grow word info *=tuk= L    
87 to swell word info *gup L    
88 to squeeze word info *num= L    
90 to dig *=ür= L    
95 to fall word info *tyuk L    
97 bird *ti= L    
99 feather *trAp L    
103 meat/flesh *kam L    
114 leaf *hrA= L    
117 fruit *num L    
174 in, inside *Or L    
176 below *prO=k L    
177 this *ta= L    
178 that *to= L    
182 I *ku= L    
183 thou *E= L    
148 white *dE(=)tar L(-)H    
39 to cook word info *su(=)gE ~ *su(=)kE L(-)H, possible form: *su(=)qE ?    
66 to tie up, fasten *sïn(=)a L(-)H, possible forms: *gïn(=)a ~ *hïn(=)a ?    
81 sharp *E(=)qEn L(-)H; possible form: *E(=)gEn ?    
31 tooth *ima(=)k L(-)L    
16 intestines *tuy L, 'belly', 'intestines'    
14 belly *gOn L, 'belly', 'stomach'    
105 tail *is L, 'bird's tail'    
98 egg *nOk L, 'egg', 'testicles'    
175 above *ka L, 'on', 'above'    
19 shoulder *tap L, 'shoulder', 'upper arm'    
105 tail *sAr L, 'tail'    
55 woman/female *mat L, 'woman', 'wife'    
58 wife *mat L, 'woman', 'wife'    
45 eye *sik L, possible forms: *gik ~ *hik ?    
46 to see *nu=kar L-H    
67 to sew word info *nïn=u L-H    
70 to shoot word info *E=ak L-H    
156 thin word info *kap=ar L-H, 'to be thin (and flat)'    
78 to cut, hack word info *pët=u L-H, 'to cut', 'to split'    
86 to grow word info *gik(=)up L-H, possible forms: *sik(=)up ~ *hik(=)up ?    
188 what? word info *gEm=an=ta L-H-L    
64 to say *i=EE L-HL    
25 neck *dE=kut L-L    
101 to fly *hO=pun=i L-L-H, singular, 'to fly', 'to get up'    
35 to vomit *atu LH    
50 to dream *takar LH    
50 to dream *tarap LH    
59 mother *unu LH    
61 house *tisE LH    
62 thatch/roof *kitay LH    
70 to shoot word info *tukan LH    
112 rotten word info *munin LH    
121 sand *Ota LH    
130 star *kEta LH    
137 to blow word info *uku LH    
144 to burn word info *uguy LH    
153 big *pOrO LH    
163 new *asir LH    
189 who? word info nEE= LH    
96 dog *gita LH (< *LL ?)    
11 dust *pa[s]na LH, 'dust', 'dirt'    
107 worm (earthworm) *imO(=)k LH, 'earthworm'    
120 stone *sirar LH, 'rock', possible forms: *girar ~ hirar ?    
116 flower *Epuy LH, 'sprout, bud, flower'    
14 belly *pisE LH, 'stomach'    
120 stone *suma LH, 'stone'    
160 painful, sick *tasum LH, 'to get sick'    
107 worm (earthworm) *kiki(=)r LH, 'worm', 'insect', 'bug'    
118 grass *kina LH, '[edible] grass'    
143 fire *apE LH, < *apOy ?    
4 leg/foot *tikir LH, < *ti=kir ?    
60 father *Ona LH, possible form: *ona ?    
197 One word info *si=nE= LH, possible forms: *gi=nE= ~ *hi=nE= ?    
157 thick word info *irOr=nE LH-L, 'to be thick (and flat)'; possible form: *irOt=nE ?    
106 snake *Oyaqu LHL    
202 Six word info *ii=hdan= lit. 'four-ten'    
205 Nine word info *si=nE=pE=hdan lit. 'one-ten'    
203 Seven word info *a=d[E]=hdan lit. 'three-ten'    
204 Eight word info *tu=pE=hdan lit. 'two-ten'    
4 leg/foot *kEma LL    
13 back word info *sEtur LL    
15 bone *kEqu LL    
26 hair word info *EtOp LL    
26 hair word info *numa LL    
27 nose *Etu LL    
32 tongue *agu LL    
43 ear *kisAr LL    
57 husband *hOku LL    
111 fish *tiqEp LL    
124 sea *atuy LL    
186 you *Eti= LL    
4 leg/foot *urE LL, 'foot'    
79 stick/wood *tiku= LL, 'tree'    
50 to dream *tinita LLH    
56 child *hEkati LLH    
60 father *aatya LLH    
135 lightning *imEru LLH    
145 smoke word info *sipuya LLH, 'smoke', possible forms: *gipuya ~ *hipuya ?    
120 stone *hdatara LLH, 'stone', 'cliff'    
77 to scratch word info *kiiki LLH, < *kii=kii ?    
22 to fear *sitOma LLH, possible forms: *gitOma ~ *hitOma ?    
52 to stand *rOs=ki plural, HL    
51 to sit *rOk plural, possible form: *dOk ?    
1 hand *mOn possible form: *mon ?    
7 to come *Eg singular    
51 to sit *aa singular    
52 to stand *as singular    
101 to fly *paar=aC=sE to fly    
171 to hide word info *nuyna transitive, < *nu=ina ?    

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