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Language: Proto-Ainu

Source/Author:  Alexander Vovin 
Notes:  Vovin, Alexander. 1993. A Reconstruction of Proto-Ainu. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Prosodic information for the proto-forms is given in the annotation column. They are marked by:

H = high
L = low 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 223
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 1
 
Classification:  languages isolate 
Map 
 

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Change History:

Showing 3 of 2 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *askE HL    
1 hand *mOn possible form: *mon ?    
1 hand *tE(=)k L   L
2 left *gar=ke H-L    
3 right *sii HL, possible forms: *gii ~ *hii ?    
4 leg/foot *kEma LL    
4 leg/foot *tikir LH, < *ti=kir ?    
4 leg/foot *urE LL, 'foot'    
5 to walk *apkas HL    
6 road/path *truu      
7 to come *Eg singular    
7 to come *sa= 'to come, go out' (Jap deru)    
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim *maa      
10 dirty      
11 dust *pa[s]na LH, 'dust', 'dirt'    
11 dust *sirma HL, 'dust', 'dirt', possible forms: *girma ~ *hirma ?    
12 skin      
13 back word info *Osma=k HL    
13 back word info *sEtur LL    
14 belly *gOn L, 'belly', 'stomach'    
14 belly *pisE LH, 'stomach'    
15 bone *kEqu LL    
15 bone *ponE < *PJap *pone [LL] 'bone'    
16 intestines *kankan HL    
16 intestines *tuy L, 'belly', 'intestines'    
17 liver *ra H, possible form: *da ?    
18 breast *tOO[C] HH    
19 shoulder *kup H, 'shoulder'    
19 shoulder *tap L, 'shoulder', 'upper arm'    
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
21 to think      
22 to fear *sitOma LLH, possible forms: *gitOma ~ *hitOma ?    
23 blood *kEm L    
24 head *pa L    
24 head *sa H    
25 neck *dE=kut L-L    
26 hair word info *EtOp LL    
26 hair word info *numa LL    
27 nose *Etu LL    
28 to breathe *gEEsE HLL    
29 to sniff, smell *rak      
30 mouth *prAA= L    
31 tooth *ima(=)k L(-)L    
31 tooth *nii      
32 tongue *agu LL    
33 to laugh *miina HLL    
34 to cry *tis      
35 to vomit *atu LH    
36 to spit *top(=)sE H(-)L    
37 to eat *EE      
38 to chew word info *kuy      
39 to cook word info *su(=)gE ~ *su(=)kE L(-)H, possible form: *su(=)qE ?    
40 to drink *kuu      
41 to bite      
42 to suck      
43 ear *kisAr LL    
44 to hear *nuu 'to hear', 'to listen'    
45 eye *sik L, possible forms: *gik ~ *hik ?    
45 eye *nuu HL, 'eye'    
46 to see *nu=kar L-H    
47 to yawn *maqu=s=Ok HL-L    
48 to sleep *mO L    
49 to lie down word info *gOt=kE H-L    
50 to dream *takar LH    
50 to dream *tarap LH    
50 to dream *tinita LLH    
51 to sit *aa singular    
51 to sit *rOk plural, possible form: *dOk ?    
52 to stand *as singular    
52 to stand *rOs=ki plural, HL    
53 person/human being *aynu HL, < *a(n)=inu ?    
53 person/human being *kur      
54 man/male *Okkay(O) HL(L)    
55 woman/female *mat L, 'woman', 'wife'    
56 child *hEkati LLH    
56 child *pOO HL, 'son', 'child'    
57 husband *hOku LL    
58 wife *mat L, 'woman', 'wife'    
59 mother *gaa(=)pO HH(-)L    
59 mother *nOrnO ~ *narna      
59 mother *unu LH    
60 father *aatya LLH    
60 father *miti HL    
60 father *Ona LH, possible form: *ona ?    
61 house *tisE LH    
62 thatch/roof *kitay LH    
63 name *dEE HL    
64 to say *i=EE L-HL    
65 rope *tus L    
66 to tie up, fasten *köt= L    
66 to tie up, fasten *sïn(=)a L(-)H, possible forms: *gïn(=)a ~ *hïn(=)a ?    
67 to sew word info *nïn=u L-H    
68 needle *kem L    
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info *E=ak L-H    
70 to shoot word info *tukan LH    
70 to shoot word info *tyOrtya 'to shoot (from the bow)', 'to hit (the mark)'    
71 to stab, pierce *tiqu      
72 to hit word info *kik      
73 to steal *ihka HL    
74 to kill      
75 to die, be dead *day H    
76 to live, be alive *gik(=)nu H-L; possible forms: *sik(=)nu ~ *hik(=)nu ?    
77 to scratch word info *kiiki LLH, < *kii=kii ?    
78 to cut, hack word info *pët=u L-H, 'to cut', 'to split'    
79 stick/wood *nii 'tree'    
79 stick/wood *tiku= LL, 'tree'    
80 to split word info *pEr= L    
81 sharp *E(=)qEn L(-)H; possible form: *E(=)gEn ?    
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info      
84 to plant      
85 to choose *num=kE H-L    
86 to grow word info *=tuk= L    
86 to grow word info *gik(=)up L-H, possible forms: *sik(=)up ~ *hik(=)up ?    
87 to swell word info *gup L    
88 to squeeze word info *num= L    
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig *=ür= L    
91 to buy *gOk      
92 to open, uncover *m[r]Ak= H    
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
95 to fall word info *tyuk L    
95 to fall word info *gaatir HLL    
96 dog *gita LH (< *LL ?)    
97 bird *ti= L    
98 egg *nOk L, 'egg', 'testicles'    
99 feather *trAp L    
100 wing      
101 to fly *paar=aC=sE to fly    
101 to fly *hO=pun=i L-L-H, singular, 'to fly', 'to get up'    
102 rat *Erum HH    
103 meat/flesh *kam L    
104 fat/grease *kirpu HL, 'fat', 'grease'    
104 fat/grease *kEE 'oil (as food)', 'fat'    
104 fat/grease *sum 'oil (as food)'    
105 tail *sAr L, 'tail'    
105 tail *is L, 'bird's tail'    
106 snake *Oyaqu LHL    
106 snake *tOkkOni HLL    
107 worm (earthworm) *imO(=)k LH, 'earthworm'    
107 worm (earthworm) *kiki(=)r LH, 'worm', 'insect', 'bug'    
108 louse word info *ki      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
111 fish *tiqEp LL    
112 rotten word info *gOr=sE H-L    
112 rotten word info *munin LH    
113 branch word info      
114 leaf *hrA= L    
115 root *=rit      
116 flower *Epuy LH, 'sprout, bud, flower'    
116 flower *nOrnO HL    
117 fruit *num L    
118 grass *mun '[inedible] grass'    
118 grass *kina LH, '[edible] grass'    
119 earth/soil *tOy      
120 stone *pOqina 'stone'    
120 stone *sirar LH, 'rock', possible forms: *girar ~ hirar ?    
120 stone *suma LH, 'stone'    
120 stone *hdatara LLH, 'stone', 'cliff'    
121 sand *Ota LH    
122 water word info *hdak=ka H-L    
122 water word info *pE H, 'sap', 'water'    
123 to flow *mOm      
124 sea *atuy LL    
125 salt *sippO HL, 'salt'    
125 salt *rur=nu H-L, 'to be salty', possible form: *dur=nu ?    
126 lake *tOO      
127 woods/forest      
128 sky *kantO HL    
128 sky *nis H, 'sky', 'cloud'    
129 moon *tiqu(=)p 'moon', 'month', 'sun'    
130 star *kEta LH    
130 star *nOOti(=)qu      
131 cloud word info *nis H, 'sky', 'cloud'    
132 fog *Huurar HLL    
133 rain *aptO HL    
134 thunder      
135 lightning *imEru LLH    
136 wind *dEEra HLL    
137 to blow word info *uku LH    
138 warm word info *sEEsEk HLL, 'to grow hot', 'to be hot'    
139 cold word info *mEE=      
140 dry word info *sat H    
141 wet *tOn(=)rE H(-)L, 'to get wet'    
142 heavy *paasE HLL    
143 fire *apE LH, < *apOy ?    
143 fire *unti HL, uncommon form    
144 to burn word info *uguy LH    
145 smoke word info *sipuya LLH, 'smoke', possible forms: *gipuya ~ *hipuya ?    
145 smoke word info *paa HL, 'steam', 'smoke'    
146 ash *uu[y]na HLL    
147 black *kur= H, < Old Jap. kurwo= ?    
148 white *dE(=)tar L(-)H    
149 red *guurE HLL    
150 yellow      
151 green *siqunin HLL, 'green / blue', possible forms: *giqunin ~ *hiqunin    
152 small *pOn      
153 big *pOrO LH    
154 short word info *tak      
155 long word info      
156 thin word info *kap=ar L-H, 'to be thin (and flat)'    
157 thick word info *irOr=nE LH-L, 'to be thick (and flat)'; possible form: *irOt=nE ?    
158 narrow *gop=nE H-L    
159 wide      
160 painful, sick *arka HL, 'painful'    
160 painful, sick *tasum LH, 'to get sick'    
161 shy, ashamed      
162 old word info *Or=nE H-L    
163 new *asir LH    
164 good *pir(=)ka H(-)L    
165 bad, evil *hdEn      
166 correct, true      
167 night *an      
168 day *tOO      
169 year *paa HL, 'year', 'age'    
170 when? word info *gEm=pa=ra      
171 to hide word info *nuyna transitive, < *nu=ina ?    
172 to climb word info      
173 at      
174 in, inside *ma=k H    
174 in, inside *Or L    
175 above *ka L, 'on', 'above'    
176 below *prO=k L    
177 this *ta= L    
178 that *to= L    
179 near *gan=kE H-L    
180 far *tuyma HL    
181 where? word info      
182 I *ku= L    
182 I *an= ~ *a=      
183 thou *E= L    
184 he/she      
185 we word info      
186 you *Eti= LL    
187 they      
188 what? word info *gEm=an=ta L-H-L    
189 who? word info *gu[n]na HL    
189 who? word info nEE= LH    
190 other      
191 all      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count      
197 One word info *si=nE= LH, possible forms: *gi=nE= ~ *hi=nE= ?    
198 Two word info *tuu=      
199 Three word info *dE=      
200 Four word info *ii=nE= HL-L    
200 Four word info *pOqOn (?), uncommon form    
201 Five word info *aski ~ *asik HL, LH (respectively)    
202 Six word info *ii=hdan= lit. 'four-ten'    
203 Seven word info *a=d[E]=hdan lit. 'three-ten'    
204 Eight word info *tu=pE=hdan lit. 'two-ten'    
205 Nine word info *si=nE=pE=hdan lit. 'one-ten'    
206 Ten word info *hdan= H    
207 Twenty word info *gOt      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info *ik      
210 One Thousand word info      

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