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Language: Proto-East Mindanao

Source/Author:  Andrew Gallman 
Notes:  Gallman, Andrew Franklin. 1997. Proto East Mindanao and its Internal Relationships. Philippine Journal of Linguistics, Special Monograph Issue No. 44. Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.

Apostrophes signify stress, not glottal stops. Proto-forms given in Gallman (1997) are often only reconstructed for lower-level branches.

PNEM = Proto-North East Mindanao (ancestral to Surigaonon, Tausug, Butuanon, Mamanwa)
PCEM = Proto-Central East Mindanao (ancestral to Kamayo, Davawenyo)
PSEM = Proto-South East Mindanao (ancestral to the Mansakan languages of Mansaka, Mandaya, Kalagan)
 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Philippine 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 5 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
3 right      
7 to come      
53 person/human being      
64 to say      
70 to shoot word info      
72 to hit word info      
75 to die, be dead      
81 sharp      
83 to work word info      
103 meat/flesh      
109 mosquito      
112 rotten word info      
118 grass      
123 to flow      
132 fog      
138 warm word info      
157 thick word info      
158 narrow      
161 shy, ashamed      
166 correct, true      
167 night      
170 when? word info      
173 at      
177 this      
184 he/she      
187 they      
191 all      
192 and      
195 no, not      
206 Ten word info      
208 Fifty word info      
1 hand *ʔalima PNEM, PCEM. Reid reconstruction 1  
2 left *wala      
4 leg/foot *siki foot, lower leg 24  
5 to walk *panaw   2  
6 road/path *dalan      
8 to turn word info *likuq PCEM 21  
8 to turn word info *birik PCEM, PNEM 4, 75  
9 to swim *laŋuy   1  
10 dirty *ripaq      
11 dust *abug      
12 skin *panit PCEM, PNEM    
13 back word info *likud   1  
14 belly *tiyan PCEM, PNEM    
14 belly *dɨbdɨb PNEM, PSEM    
15 bone *bɨ'kɨg   16  
16 intestines *tinaqi   1  
17 liver *atay   1  
18 breast *susu   1  
19 shoulder *abaga   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *tigaw PCEM, PSEM    
21 to think *isip PCEM, PNEM 23  
21 to think *dɨmdɨm thought, PNEM, PSEM 13  
22 to fear *hadlɨk      
22 to fear *talaw to be afraid to do something, PNEM, PSEM 34  
23 blood *duguq   1  
24 head *ulu   1  
25 neck *liqɨg   1  
26 hair word info *buhuk   1, 65  
27 nose *iruŋ   1  
28 to breathe *-hawa PNEM 1  
29 to sniff, smell *simhut PNEM 31, 82  
30 mouth *baqbaq   1  
31 tooth *untu PCEM, PSEM 52  
32 tongue *dilaq   4  
33 to laugh *katawa PCEM, PNEM 1  
34 to cry *tiyahuq PCEM    
35 to vomit *suka   9  
35 to vomit *digwaq PNEM    
36 to spit *lɨdaq PNEM 1  
37 to eat *kaqan PCEM, PSEM 1  
38 to chew word info *sɨpaq to chew something 17  
39 to cook word info *lutuq   20  
40 to drink *inɨm   1, 56  
41 to bite *baŋaq   33  
41 to bite *kɨtkɨt to gnaw 21  
42 to suck *sɨpsɨp   1  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
44 to hear *dɨŋɨg   1  
45 eye *mata   1  
46 to see *kitaq   1  
47 to yawn *sigqab PCEM, PNEM    
48 to sleep *turug   1  
49 to lie down word info *kulaŋ PNEM, PSEM    
50 to dream *-inɨp PNEM, PSEM 30, 57  
51 to sit *(l)iŋkud   45  
52 to stand *(t)indɨg   20  
54 man/male *ɨsɨg      
55 woman/female *babayi PCEM 1, 105  
55 woman/female *bubayi PCEM 1, 105  
56 child *anak offspring 1  
57 husband *bana   1  
58 wife *asawa   1  
59 mother *inaq   1, 76  
60 father *amaq   1, 18  
61 house *balay   14  
62 thatch/roof *a'tɨp   1  
63 name *ŋaran   1  
65 rope *lubid   21  
66 to tie up, fasten *bɨgkɨt   111  
66 to tie up, fasten *hɨkɨt   1  
67 to sew word info *tahiq   1  
68 needle *dagɨm   1, 34  
69 to hunt word info *anup   1  
71 to stab, pierce *duŋgab      
71 to stab, pierce *tigbak PCEM, PNEM    
73 to steal *kawat   24  
74 to kill *patay   2  
74 to kill *bunuq   1  
76 to live, be alive *buhiq PCEM, PNEM 14, 74  
77 to scratch word info *kalut   37, 78  
78 to cut, hack word info *tigbas PNEM 106  
79 stick/wood *kahuy tree 1  
80 to split word info *bɨlaq PNEM, PSEM    
82 dull, blunt *dɨmpɨr PNEM 3  
84 to plant *tanɨm   2  
85 to choose *piliq   1  
86 to grow word info *tubuq PCEM, PNEM 1  
87 to swell word info *hubag PCEM 1, 72  
88 to squeeze word info *pisgaq      
88 to squeeze word info *kɨpɨg PNEM    
89 to hold word info *kaput PCEM 25  
90 to dig *kabut PCEM, PNEM    
91 to buy *bili   1  
91 to buy *palit   53  
92 to open, uncover *ukab   28  
92 to open, uncover *bukas PSEM 1, 63  
93 to pound, beat word info *bayu   1  
93 to pound, beat word info *bunal   1  
94 to throw word info *timbag   34  
95 to fall word info *hulug      
96 dog *iduq   21  
97 bird *laŋgam PCEM, PSEM 72  
98 egg *itlug   1  
99 feather *bulbul   1, 68  
99 feather *lawi   14  
99 feather *barhibu PCEM, PNEM 21  
100 wing *kapay PNEM, PSEM    
101 to fly *lɨpad PNEM 21  
102 rat *ambaw   38  
104 fat/grease *tabaq   23  
105 tail *ikug   1  
106 snake *halas PNEM 26  
106 snake *sawa python 25  
107 worm (earthworm) *wa'ti earthworm 1  
107 worm (earthworm) *ulud PNEM, PSEM 21  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
110 spider *lawaq   1  
111 fish *isdaq   18  
113 branch word info *saŋa PNEM, PSEM 2  
114 leaf *dahun   1  
115 root *gamut   3  
116 flower *bulak   22  
116 flower *burak   22  
117 fruit *buŋa   9  
119 earth/soil *lupaq   25  
120 stone *batu   1  
121 sand *buhaŋin   89  
122 water word info *tubig   14  
124 sea *dagat   25  
124 sea *lawɨd   6  
125 salt *a'sin   3  
126 lake *danaw   1  
127 woods/forest *guraŋan   58  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
129 moon *bulan   1  
130 star *bituqun   1  
131 cloud word info *gabun   1  
131 cloud word info *labun   1, 102  
133 rain *uran   1  
134 thunder *dalugdug PNEM 2, 48  
135 lightning *kilat   1  
136 wind *haŋin PCEM, PNEM 1  
137 to blow word info *huyup   1, 44  
139 cold word info *tignaw cold (as of water)    
139 cold word info *hagkɨt to be cold, PNEM 119  
140 dry word info *tahay PCEM, PNEM 44  
141 wet *basaq   1  
142 heavy *bɨqgat   1, 63  
143 fire *atulun PSEM 15  
144 to burn word info *sunug   21  
145 smoke word info *ɨbɨl PSEM 1  
146 ash *abu   1  
147 black *itɨm   1  
148 white *putiq   1  
149 red *pula   28  
150 yellow *dalag   38  
150 yellow *lalag   38  
151 green *hilaw PNEM 36  
152 small *gamay PNEM 29  
153 big *dakulaq   22, 23  
154 short word info *hayupuq PCEM, PNEM    
155 long word info *habaq   27  
156 thin word info *nipis   1  
159 wide *luqag PNEM 62  
160 painful, sick *sakit   1  
162 old word info *laqas PNEM 43  
163 new *baq'gu   1  
164 good *dayaw   46  
165 bad, evil *raqat   1  
168 day *adlaw   1  
169 year *tuqig   25  
169 year *tahɨn PNEM    
171 to hide word info *taguq   13  
172 to climb word info *panik   1, 62  
172 to climb word info *dalag PNEM    
172 to climb word info *sa'ka to climb a hill, PCEM, PNEM 55  
174 in, inside *sɨlɨd   14  
175 above *ba'baw top of, surface of 2  
176 below *dalɨm   20  
178 that *iyan PCEM, PNEM 3  
179 near *lapit PSEM 36  
179 near *rapit PCEM 36  
180 far *(ha)rayuq      
181 where? word info *haqin   1, 63  
181 where? word info *diqin PNEM, PSEM 1, 15  
182 I *aku   1, 5  
183 thou *ikaw   1  
185 we word info *kita   1, 50  
186 you *ka'mu   1, 38  
188 what? word info *unu   2, 65  
189 who? word info *siqnu   14  
190 other *laqin PCEM, PNEM 2  
193 if *kun   1, 11  
193 if *kuŋ   1, 11  
194 how? word info *unuhun PNEM 29  
196 to count *bilaŋ   2  
196 to count *ihap PCEM, PNEM 2  
197 One word info *isa   1  
198 Two word info *duha   1  
199 Three word info *tulu PNEM, PSEM 1  
200 Four word info *upat   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
202 Six word info *ɨnɨm PNEM, PSEM 1  
203 Seven word info *pitu   1  
204 Eight word info *walu PNEM, PSEM 3  
205 Nine word info *siyam PNEM, PSEM 9  
207 Twenty word info *ruhaq PNEM    
209 One Hundred word info *gatus   4  
210 One Thousand word info *libu PCEM, PNEM 5  

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