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Language: Proto-East Mindanao

Source/Author:  Andrew Gallman 
Notes:  Gallman, Andrew Franklin. 1997. Proto East Mindanao and its Internal Relationships. Philippine Journal of Linguistics, Special Monograph Issue No. 44. Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.

Apostrophes signify stress, not glottal stops. Proto-forms given in Gallman (1997) are often only reconstructed for lower-level branches.

PNEM = Proto-North East Mindanao (ancestral to Surigaonon, Tausug, Butuanon, Mamanwa)
PCEM = Proto-Central East Mindanao (ancestral to Kamayo, Davawenyo)
PSEM = Proto-South East Mindanao (ancestral to the Mansakan languages of Mansaka, Mandaya, Kalagan)
 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Philippine 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 5 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
3 right      
7 to come      
53 person/human being      
64 to say      
70 to shoot word info      
72 to hit word info      
75 to die, be dead      
81 sharp      
83 to work word info      
103 meat/flesh      
109 mosquito      
112 rotten word info      
118 grass      
123 to flow      
132 fog      
138 warm word info      
157 thick word info      
158 narrow      
161 shy, ashamed      
166 correct, true      
167 night      
170 when? word info      
173 at      
177 this      
184 he/she      
187 they      
191 all      
192 and      
195 no, not      
206 Ten word info      
208 Fifty word info      
180 far *(ha)rayuq      
51 to sit *(l)iŋkud   45  
52 to stand *(t)indɨg   20  
28 to breathe *-hawa PNEM 1  
50 to dream *-inɨp PNEM, PSEM 30, 57  
125 salt *a'sin   3  
62 thatch/roof *a'tɨp   1  
19 shoulder *abaga   1  
146 ash *abu   1  
11 dust *abug      
168 day *adlaw   1  
182 I *aku   1, 5  
60 father *amaq   1, 18  
102 rat *ambaw   38  
56 child *anak offspring 1  
69 to hunt word info *anup   1  
58 wife *asawa   1  
17 liver *atay   1  
143 fire *atulun PSEM 15  
175 above *ba'baw top of, surface of 2  
55 woman/female *babayi PCEM 1, 105  
61 house *balay   14  
57 husband *bana   1  
163 new *baq'gu   1  
30 mouth *baqbaq   1  
99 feather *barhibu PCEM, PNEM 21  
141 wet *basaq   1  
120 stone *batu   1  
93 to pound, beat word info *bayu   1  
41 to bite *baŋaq   33  
196 to count *bilaŋ   2  
91 to buy *bili   1  
8 to turn word info *birik PCEM, PNEM 4, 75  
130 star *bituqun   1  
55 woman/female *bubayi PCEM 1, 105  
121 sand *buhaŋin   89  
76 to live, be alive *buhiq PCEM, PNEM 14, 74  
26 hair word info *buhuk   1, 65  
92 to open, uncover *bukas PSEM 1, 63  
116 flower *bulak   22  
129 moon *bulan   1  
99 feather *bulbul   1, 68  
93 to pound, beat word info *bunal   1  
74 to kill *bunuq   1  
116 flower *burak   22  
117 fruit *buŋa   9  
15 bone *bɨ'kɨg   16  
66 to tie up, fasten *bɨgkɨt   111  
80 to split word info *bɨlaq PNEM, PSEM    
142 heavy *bɨqgat   1, 63  
124 sea *dagat   25  
68 needle *dagɨm   1, 34  
114 leaf *dahun   1  
153 big *dakulaq   22, 23  
150 yellow *dalag   38  
172 to climb word info *dalag PNEM    
6 road/path *dalan      
134 thunder *dalugdug PNEM 2, 48  
176 below *dalɨm   20  
126 lake *danaw   1  
164 good *dayaw   46  
35 to vomit *digwaq PNEM    
32 tongue *dilaq   4  
181 where? word info *diqin PNEM, PSEM 1, 15  
23 blood *duguq   1  
198 Two word info *duha   1  
71 to stab, pierce *duŋgab      
14 belly *dɨbdɨb PNEM, PSEM    
21 to think *dɨmdɨm thought, PNEM, PSEM 13  
82 dull, blunt *dɨmpɨr PNEM 3  
44 to hear *dɨŋɨg   1  
131 cloud word info *gabun   1  
152 small *gamay PNEM 29  
115 root *gamut   3  
209 One Hundred word info *gatus   4  
127 woods/forest *guraŋan   58  
155 long word info *habaq   27  
22 to fear *hadlɨk      
139 cold word info *hagkɨt to be cold, PNEM 119  
106 snake *halas PNEM 26  
181 where? word info *haqin   1, 63  
154 short word info *hayupuq PCEM, PNEM    
136 wind *haŋin PCEM, PNEM 1  
151 green *hilaw PNEM 36  
87 to swell word info *hubag PCEM 1, 72  
95 to fall word info *hulug      
137 to blow word info *huyup   1, 44  
66 to tie up, fasten *hɨkɨt   1  
96 dog *iduq   21  
196 to count *ihap PCEM, PNEM 2  
183 thou *ikaw   1  
105 tail *ikug   1  
59 mother *inaq   1, 76  
40 to drink *inɨm   1, 56  
27 nose *iruŋ   1  
197 One word info *isa   1  
111 fish *isdaq   18  
21 to think *isip PCEM, PNEM 23  
98 egg *itlug   1  
147 black *itɨm   1  
178 that *iyan PCEM, PNEM 3  
186 you *ka'mu   1, 38  
90 to dig *kabut PCEM, PNEM    
79 stick/wood *kahuy tree 1  
77 to scratch word info *kalut   37, 78  
100 wing *kapay PNEM, PSEM    
89 to hold word info *kaput PCEM 25  
37 to eat *kaqan PCEM, PSEM 1  
33 to laugh *katawa PCEM, PNEM 1  
73 to steal *kawat   24  
135 lightning *kilat   1  
185 we word info *kita   1, 50  
46 to see *kitaq   1  
49 to lie down word info *kulaŋ PNEM, PSEM    
193 if *kun   1, 11  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
193 if *kuŋ   1, 11  
88 to squeeze word info *kɨpɨg PNEM    
41 to bite *kɨtkɨt to gnaw 21  
131 cloud word info *labun   1, 102  
150 yellow *lalag   38  
179 near *lapit PSEM 36  
162 old word info *laqas PNEM 43  
190 other *laqin PCEM, PNEM 2  
110 spider *lawaq   1  
99 feather *lawi   14  
124 sea *lawɨd   6  
97 bird *laŋgam PCEM, PSEM 72  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
9 to swim *laŋuy   1  
210 One Thousand word info *libu PCEM, PNEM 5  
13 back word info *likud   1  
8 to turn word info *likuq PCEM 21  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
25 neck *liqɨg   1  
65 rope *lubid   21  
119 earth/soil *lupaq   25  
159 wide *luqag PNEM 62  
39 to cook word info *lutuq   20  
36 to spit *lɨdaq PNEM 1  
101 to fly *lɨpad PNEM 21  
45 eye *mata   1  
156 thin word info *nipis   1  
91 to buy *palit   53  
5 to walk *panaw   2  
172 to climb word info *panik   1, 62  
12 skin *panit PCEM, PNEM    
74 to kill *patay   2  
85 to choose *piliq   1  
88 to squeeze word info *pisgaq      
203 Seven word info *pitu   1  
149 red *pula   28  
148 white *putiq   1  
179 near *rapit PCEM 36  
165 bad, evil *raqat   1  
10 dirty *ripaq      
207 Twenty word info *ruhaq PNEM    
172 to climb word info *sa'ka to climb a hill, PCEM, PNEM 55  
160 painful, sick *sakit   1  
106 snake *sawa python 25  
113 branch word info *saŋa PNEM, PSEM 2  
47 to yawn *sigqab PCEM, PNEM    
4 leg/foot *siki foot, lower leg 24  
29 to sniff, smell *simhut PNEM 31, 82  
189 who? word info *siqnu   14  
205 Nine word info *siyam PNEM, PSEM 9  
35 to vomit *suka   9  
144 to burn word info *sunug   21  
18 breast *susu   1  
174 in, inside *sɨlɨd   14  
38 to chew word info *sɨpaq to chew something 17  
42 to suck *sɨpsɨp   1  
104 fat/grease *tabaq   23  
171 to hide word info *taguq   13  
140 dry word info *tahay PCEM, PNEM 44  
67 to sew word info *tahiq   1  
169 year *tahɨn PNEM    
22 to fear *talaw to be afraid to do something, PNEM, PSEM 34  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
84 to plant *tanɨm   2  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *tigaw PCEM, PSEM    
71 to stab, pierce *tigbak PCEM, PNEM    
78 to cut, hack word info *tigbas PNEM 106  
139 cold word info *tignaw cold (as of water)    
94 to throw word info *timbag   34  
16 intestines *tinaqi   1  
34 to cry *tiyahuq PCEM    
14 belly *tiyan PCEM, PNEM    
122 water word info *tubig   14  
86 to grow word info *tubuq PCEM, PNEM 1  
199 Three word info *tulu PNEM, PSEM 1  
169 year *tuqig   25  
48 to sleep *turug   1  
92 to open, uncover *ukab   28  
24 head *ulu   1  
107 worm (earthworm) *ulud PNEM, PSEM 21  
31 tooth *untu PCEM, PSEM 52  
188 what? word info *unu   2, 65  
194 how? word info *unuhun PNEM 29  
200 Four word info *upat   1  
133 rain *uran   1  
107 worm (earthworm) *wa'ti earthworm 1  
2 left *wala      
204 Eight word info *walu PNEM, PSEM 3  
63 name *ŋaran   1  
145 smoke word info *ɨbɨl PSEM 1  
202 Six word info *ɨnɨm PNEM, PSEM 1  
54 man/male *ɨsɨg      
1 hand *ʔalima PNEM, PCEM. Reid reconstruction 1  

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