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Language: Proto-East Mindanao

Source/Author:  Andrew Gallman 
Notes:  Gallman, Andrew Franklin. 1997. Proto East Mindanao and its Internal Relationships. Philippine Journal of Linguistics, Special Monograph Issue No. 44. Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.

Apostrophes signify stress, not glottal stops. Proto-forms given in Gallman (1997) are often only reconstructed for lower-level branches.

PNEM = Proto-North East Mindanao (ancestral to Surigaonon, Tausug, Butuanon, Mamanwa)
PCEM = Proto-Central East Mindanao (ancestral to Kamayo, Davawenyo)
PSEM = Proto-South East Mindanao (ancestral to the Mansakan languages of Mansaka, Mandaya, Kalagan)
 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Philippine 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 5 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
3 right      
7 to come      
53 person/human being      
64 to say      
70 to shoot word info      
72 to hit word info      
75 to die, be dead      
81 sharp      
83 to work word info      
103 meat/flesh      
109 mosquito      
112 rotten word info      
118 grass      
123 to flow      
132 fog      
138 warm word info      
157 thick word info      
158 narrow      
161 shy, ashamed      
166 correct, true      
167 night      
170 when? word info      
173 at      
177 this      
184 he/she      
187 they      
191 all      
192 and      
195 no, not      
206 Ten word info      
208 Fifty word info      
2 left *wala      
6 road/path *dalan      
10 dirty *ripaq      
11 dust *abug      
12 skin *panit PCEM, PNEM    
14 belly *tiyan PCEM, PNEM    
14 belly *dɨbdɨb PNEM, PSEM    
20 to know, be knowledgeable *tigaw PCEM, PSEM    
22 to fear *hadlɨk      
34 to cry *tiyahuq PCEM    
35 to vomit *digwaq PNEM    
47 to yawn *sigqab PCEM, PNEM    
49 to lie down word info *kulaŋ PNEM, PSEM    
54 man/male *ɨsɨg      
71 to stab, pierce *duŋgab      
71 to stab, pierce *tigbak PCEM, PNEM    
80 to split word info *bɨlaq PNEM, PSEM    
88 to squeeze word info *pisgaq      
88 to squeeze word info *kɨpɨg PNEM    
90 to dig *kabut PCEM, PNEM    
95 to fall word info *hulug      
100 wing *kapay PNEM, PSEM    
139 cold word info *tignaw cold (as of water)    
154 short word info *hayupuq PCEM, PNEM    
169 year *tahɨn PNEM    
172 to climb word info *dalag PNEM    
180 far *(ha)rayuq      
207 Twenty word info *ruhaq PNEM    
1 hand *ʔalima PNEM, PCEM. Reid reconstruction 1  
9 to swim *laŋuy   1  
13 back word info *likud   1  
16 intestines *tinaqi   1  
17 liver *atay   1  
18 breast *susu   1  
19 shoulder *abaga   1  
23 blood *duguq   1  
24 head *ulu   1  
25 neck *liqɨg   1  
27 nose *iruŋ   1  
28 to breathe *-hawa PNEM 1  
30 mouth *baqbaq   1  
33 to laugh *katawa PCEM, PNEM 1  
36 to spit *lɨdaq PNEM 1  
37 to eat *kaqan PCEM, PSEM 1  
42 to suck *sɨpsɨp   1  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
44 to hear *dɨŋɨg   1  
45 eye *mata   1  
46 to see *kitaq   1  
48 to sleep *turug   1  
56 child *anak offspring 1  
57 husband *bana   1  
58 wife *asawa   1  
62 thatch/roof *a'tɨp   1  
63 name *ŋaran   1  
66 to tie up, fasten *hɨkɨt   1  
67 to sew word info *tahiq   1  
69 to hunt word info *anup   1  
74 to kill *bunuq   1  
79 stick/wood *kahuy tree 1  
85 to choose *piliq   1  
86 to grow word info *tubuq PCEM, PNEM 1  
91 to buy *bili   1  
93 to pound, beat word info *bayu   1  
93 to pound, beat word info *bunal   1  
98 egg *itlug   1  
105 tail *ikug   1  
107 worm (earthworm) *wa'ti earthworm 1  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
110 spider *lawaq   1  
114 leaf *dahun   1  
120 stone *batu   1  
126 lake *danaw   1  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
129 moon *bulan   1  
130 star *bituqun   1  
131 cloud word info *gabun   1  
133 rain *uran   1  
135 lightning *kilat   1  
136 wind *haŋin PCEM, PNEM 1  
141 wet *basaq   1  
145 smoke word info *ɨbɨl PSEM 1  
146 ash *abu   1  
147 black *itɨm   1  
148 white *putiq   1  
156 thin word info *nipis   1  
160 painful, sick *sakit   1  
163 new *baq'gu   1  
165 bad, evil *raqat   1  
168 day *adlaw   1  
183 thou *ikaw   1  
197 One word info *isa   1  
198 Two word info *duha   1  
199 Three word info *tulu PNEM, PSEM 1  
200 Four word info *upat   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
202 Six word info *ɨnɨm PNEM, PSEM 1  
203 Seven word info *pitu   1  
131 cloud word info *labun   1, 102  
55 woman/female *babayi PCEM 1, 105  
55 woman/female *bubayi PCEM 1, 105  
193 if *kun   1, 11  
193 if *kuŋ   1, 11  
181 where? word info *diqin PNEM, PSEM 1, 15  
60 father *amaq   1, 18  
68 needle *dagɨm   1, 34  
186 you *ka'mu   1, 38  
137 to blow word info *huyup   1, 44  
182 I *aku   1, 5  
185 we word info *kita   1, 50  
40 to drink *inɨm   1, 56  
172 to climb word info *panik   1, 62  
92 to open, uncover *bukas PSEM 1, 63  
142 heavy *bɨqgat   1, 63  
181 where? word info *haqin   1, 63  
26 hair word info *buhuk   1, 65  
99 feather *bulbul   1, 68  
87 to swell word info *hubag PCEM 1, 72  
59 mother *inaq   1, 76  
78 to cut, hack word info *tigbas PNEM 106  
66 to tie up, fasten *bɨgkɨt   111  
139 cold word info *hagkɨt to be cold, PNEM 119  
21 to think *dɨmdɨm thought, PNEM, PSEM 13  
171 to hide word info *taguq   13  
61 house *balay   14  
99 feather *lawi   14  
122 water word info *tubig   14  
174 in, inside *sɨlɨd   14  
189 who? word info *siqnu   14  
76 to live, be alive *buhiq PCEM, PNEM 14, 74  
143 fire *atulun PSEM 15  
15 bone *bɨ'kɨg   16  
38 to chew word info *sɨpaq to chew something 17  
111 fish *isdaq   18  
5 to walk *panaw   2  
74 to kill *patay   2  
84 to plant *tanɨm   2  
113 branch word info *saŋa PNEM, PSEM 2  
175 above *ba'baw top of, surface of 2  
190 other *laqin PCEM, PNEM 2  
196 to count *bilaŋ   2  
196 to count *ihap PCEM, PNEM 2  
134 thunder *dalugdug PNEM 2, 48  
188 what? word info *unu   2, 65  
39 to cook word info *lutuq   20  
52 to stand *(t)indɨg   20  
176 below *dalɨm   20  
8 to turn word info *likuq PCEM 21  
41 to bite *kɨtkɨt to gnaw 21  
65 rope *lubid   21  
96 dog *iduq   21  
99 feather *barhibu PCEM, PNEM 21  
101 to fly *lɨpad PNEM 21  
107 worm (earthworm) *ulud PNEM, PSEM 21  
144 to burn word info *sunug   21  
116 flower *bulak   22  
116 flower *burak   22  
153 big *dakulaq   22, 23  
21 to think *isip PCEM, PNEM 23  
104 fat/grease *tabaq   23  
4 leg/foot *siki foot, lower leg 24  
73 to steal *kawat   24  
89 to hold word info *kaput PCEM 25  
106 snake *sawa python 25  
119 earth/soil *lupaq   25  
124 sea *dagat   25  
169 year *tuqig   25  
106 snake *halas PNEM 26  
155 long word info *habaq   27  
92 to open, uncover *ukab   28  
149 red *pula   28  
152 small *gamay PNEM 29  
194 how? word info *unuhun PNEM 29  
82 dull, blunt *dɨmpɨr PNEM 3  
115 root *gamut   3  
125 salt *a'sin   3  
178 that *iyan PCEM, PNEM 3  
204 Eight word info *walu PNEM, PSEM 3  
50 to dream *-inɨp PNEM, PSEM 30, 57  
29 to sniff, smell *simhut PNEM 31, 82  
41 to bite *baŋaq   33  
22 to fear *talaw to be afraid to do something, PNEM, PSEM 34  
94 to throw word info *timbag   34  
151 green *hilaw PNEM 36  
179 near *lapit PSEM 36  
179 near *rapit PCEM 36  
77 to scratch word info *kalut   37, 78  
102 rat *ambaw   38  
150 yellow *dalag   38  
150 yellow *lalag   38  
32 tongue *dilaq   4  
209 One Hundred word info *gatus   4  
8 to turn word info *birik PCEM, PNEM 4, 75  
162 old word info *laqas PNEM 43  
140 dry word info *tahay PCEM, PNEM 44  
51 to sit *(l)iŋkud   45  
164 good *dayaw   46  
210 One Thousand word info *libu PCEM, PNEM 5  
31 tooth *untu PCEM, PSEM 52  
91 to buy *palit   53  
172 to climb word info *sa'ka to climb a hill, PCEM, PNEM 55  
127 woods/forest *guraŋan   58  
124 sea *lawɨd   6  
159 wide *luqag PNEM 62  
97 bird *laŋgam PCEM, PSEM 72  
121 sand *buhaŋin   89  
35 to vomit *suka   9  
117 fruit *buŋa   9  
205 Nine word info *siyam PNEM, PSEM 9  

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