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Language: Proto-East Mindanao

Source/Author:  Andrew Gallman 
Notes:  Gallman, Andrew Franklin. 1997. Proto East Mindanao and its Internal Relationships. Philippine Journal of Linguistics, Special Monograph Issue No. 44. Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.

Apostrophes signify stress, not glottal stops. Proto-forms given in Gallman (1997) are often only reconstructed for lower-level branches.

PNEM = Proto-North East Mindanao (ancestral to Surigaonon, Tausug, Butuanon, Mamanwa)
PCEM = Proto-Central East Mindanao (ancestral to Kamayo, Davawenyo)
PSEM = Proto-South East Mindanao (ancestral to the Mansakan languages of Mansaka, Mandaya, Kalagan)
 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Philippine 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 5 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *ʔalima PNEM, PCEM. Reid reconstruction 1  
2 left *wala      
3 right      
4 leg/foot *siki foot, lower leg 24  
5 to walk *panaw   2  
6 road/path *dalan      
7 to come      
8 to turn word info *likuq PCEM 21  
8 to turn word info *birik PCEM, PNEM 4, 75  
9 to swim *laŋuy   1  
10 dirty *ripaq      
11 dust *abug      
12 skin *panit PCEM, PNEM    
13 back word info *likud   1  
14 belly *tiyan PCEM, PNEM    
14 belly *dɨbdɨb PNEM, PSEM    
15 bone *bɨ'kɨg   16  
16 intestines *tinaqi   1  
17 liver *atay   1  
18 breast *susu   1  
19 shoulder *abaga   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *tigaw PCEM, PSEM    
21 to think *isip PCEM, PNEM 23  
21 to think *dɨmdɨm thought, PNEM, PSEM 13  
22 to fear *hadlɨk      
22 to fear *talaw to be afraid to do something, PNEM, PSEM 34  
23 blood *duguq   1  
24 head *ulu   1  
25 neck *liqɨg   1  
26 hair word info *buhuk   1, 65  
27 nose *iruŋ   1  
28 to breathe *-hawa PNEM 1  
29 to sniff, smell *simhut PNEM 31, 82  
30 mouth *baqbaq   1  
31 tooth *untu PCEM, PSEM 52  
32 tongue *dilaq   4  
33 to laugh *katawa PCEM, PNEM 1  
34 to cry *tiyahuq PCEM    
35 to vomit *suka   9  
35 to vomit *digwaq PNEM    
36 to spit *lɨdaq PNEM 1  
37 to eat *kaqan PCEM, PSEM 1  
38 to chew word info *sɨpaq to chew something 17  
39 to cook word info *lutuq   20  
40 to drink *inɨm   1, 56  
41 to bite *baŋaq   33  
41 to bite *kɨtkɨt to gnaw 21  
42 to suck *sɨpsɨp   1  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
44 to hear *dɨŋɨg   1  
45 eye *mata   1  
46 to see *kitaq   1  
47 to yawn *sigqab PCEM, PNEM    
48 to sleep *turug   1  
49 to lie down word info *kulaŋ PNEM, PSEM    
50 to dream *-inɨp PNEM, PSEM 30, 57  
51 to sit *(l)iŋkud   45  
52 to stand *(t)indɨg   20  
53 person/human being      
54 man/male *ɨsɨg      
55 woman/female *babayi PCEM 1, 105  
55 woman/female *bubayi PCEM 1, 105  
56 child *anak offspring 1  
57 husband *bana   1  
58 wife *asawa   1  
59 mother *inaq   1, 76  
60 father *amaq   1, 18  
61 house *balay   14  
62 thatch/roof *a'tɨp   1  
63 name *ŋaran   1  
64 to say      
65 rope *lubid   21  
66 to tie up, fasten *bɨgkɨt   111  
66 to tie up, fasten *hɨkɨt   1  
67 to sew word info *tahiq   1  
68 needle *dagɨm   1, 34  
69 to hunt word info *anup   1  
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce *duŋgab      
71 to stab, pierce *tigbak PCEM, PNEM    
72 to hit word info      
73 to steal *kawat   24  
74 to kill *patay   2  
74 to kill *bunuq   1  
75 to die, be dead      
76 to live, be alive *buhiq PCEM, PNEM 14, 74  
77 to scratch word info *kalut   37, 78  
78 to cut, hack word info *tigbas PNEM 106  
79 stick/wood *kahuy tree 1  
80 to split word info *bɨlaq PNEM, PSEM    
81 sharp      
82 dull, blunt *dɨmpɨr PNEM 3  
83 to work word info      
84 to plant *tanɨm   2  
85 to choose *piliq   1  
86 to grow word info *tubuq PCEM, PNEM 1  
87 to swell word info *hubag PCEM 1, 72  
88 to squeeze word info *pisgaq      
88 to squeeze word info *kɨpɨg PNEM    
89 to hold word info *kaput PCEM 25  
90 to dig *kabut PCEM, PNEM    
91 to buy *bili   1  
91 to buy *palit   53  
92 to open, uncover *ukab   28  
92 to open, uncover *bukas PSEM 1, 63  
93 to pound, beat word info *bayu   1  
93 to pound, beat word info *bunal   1  
94 to throw word info *timbag   34  
95 to fall word info *hulug      
96 dog *iduq   21  
97 bird *laŋgam PCEM, PSEM 72  
98 egg *itlug   1  
99 feather *bulbul   1, 68  
99 feather *lawi   14  
99 feather *barhibu PCEM, PNEM 21  
100 wing *kapay PNEM, PSEM    
101 to fly *lɨpad PNEM 21  
102 rat *ambaw   38  
103 meat/flesh      
104 fat/grease *tabaq   23  
105 tail *ikug   1  
106 snake *halas PNEM 26  
106 snake *sawa python 25  
107 worm (earthworm) *wa'ti earthworm 1  
107 worm (earthworm) *ulud PNEM, PSEM 21  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
109 mosquito      
110 spider *lawaq   1  
111 fish *isdaq   18  
112 rotten word info      
113 branch word info *saŋa PNEM, PSEM 2  
114 leaf *dahun   1  
115 root *gamut   3  
116 flower *bulak   22  
116 flower *burak   22  
117 fruit *buŋa   9  
118 grass      
119 earth/soil *lupaq   25  
120 stone *batu   1  
121 sand *buhaŋin   89  
122 water word info *tubig   14  
123 to flow      
124 sea *dagat   25  
124 sea *lawɨd   6  
125 salt *a'sin   3  
126 lake *danaw   1  
127 woods/forest *guraŋan   58  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
129 moon *bulan   1  
130 star *bituqun   1  
131 cloud word info *gabun   1  
131 cloud word info *labun   1, 102  
132 fog      
133 rain *uran   1  
134 thunder *dalugdug PNEM 2, 48  
135 lightning *kilat   1  
136 wind *haŋin PCEM, PNEM 1  
137 to blow word info *huyup   1, 44  
138 warm word info      
139 cold word info *tignaw cold (as of water)    
139 cold word info *hagkɨt to be cold, PNEM 119  
140 dry word info *tahay PCEM, PNEM 44  
141 wet *basaq   1  
142 heavy *bɨqgat   1, 63  
143 fire *atulun PSEM 15  
144 to burn word info *sunug   21  
145 smoke word info *ɨbɨl PSEM 1  
146 ash *abu   1  
147 black *itɨm   1  
148 white *putiq   1  
149 red *pula   28  
150 yellow *dalag   38  
150 yellow *lalag   38  
151 green *hilaw PNEM 36  
152 small *gamay PNEM 29  
153 big *dakulaq   22, 23  
154 short word info *hayupuq PCEM, PNEM    
155 long word info *habaq   27  
156 thin word info *nipis   1  
157 thick word info      
158 narrow      
159 wide *luqag PNEM 62  
160 painful, sick *sakit   1  
161 shy, ashamed      
162 old word info *laqas PNEM 43  
163 new *baq'gu   1  
164 good *dayaw   46  
165 bad, evil *raqat   1  
166 correct, true      
167 night      
168 day *adlaw   1  
169 year *tuqig   25  
169 year *tahɨn PNEM    
170 when? word info      
171 to hide word info *taguq   13  
172 to climb word info *panik   1, 62  
172 to climb word info *dalag PNEM    
172 to climb word info *sa'ka to climb a hill, PCEM, PNEM 55  
173 at      
174 in, inside *sɨlɨd   14  
175 above *ba'baw top of, surface of 2  
176 below *dalɨm   20  
177 this      
178 that *iyan PCEM, PNEM 3  
179 near *lapit PSEM 36  
179 near *rapit PCEM 36  
180 far *(ha)rayuq      
181 where? word info *haqin   1, 63  
181 where? word info *diqin PNEM, PSEM 1, 15  
182 I *aku   1, 5  
183 thou *ikaw   1  
184 he/she      
185 we word info *kita   1, 50  
186 you *ka'mu   1, 38  
187 they      
188 what? word info *unu   2, 65  
189 who? word info *siqnu   14  
190 other *laqin PCEM, PNEM 2  
191 all      
192 and      
193 if *kun   1, 11  
193 if *kuŋ   1, 11  
194 how? word info *unuhun PNEM 29  
195 no, not      
196 to count *bilaŋ   2  
196 to count *ihap PCEM, PNEM 2  
197 One word info *isa   1  
198 Two word info *duha   1  
199 Three word info *tulu PNEM, PSEM 1  
200 Four word info *upat   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
202 Six word info *ɨnɨm PNEM, PSEM 1  
203 Seven word info *pitu   1  
204 Eight word info *walu PNEM, PSEM 3  
205 Nine word info *siyam PNEM, PSEM 9  
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info *ruhaq PNEM    
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info *gatus   4  
210 One Thousand word info *libu PCEM, PNEM 5  

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