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Language: Proto-Kam-Sui

Source/Author:  Graham Thurgood 
Notes:  Source: Thurgood, Graham. 1988. "Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 179-218. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.

Proto-Kam-Sui tones:
1 = Tone *A, voiceless
2 = Tone *A, voiced
3 = Tone *C, voiceless
4 = Tone *C, voiced
5 = Tone *B, voiceless
6 = Tone *B, voiced
7 = Tone *D, voiceless
8 = Tone *D, voiced
 
Problems:  Thurgood's reconstructions are still preliminary and are derived from limited data sets. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 128
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 5
 
Classification:  Tai-Kadai:Kam-Tai:Kam-Sui 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 7 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
175 above      
191 all      
192 and      
146 ash *phwu:k7   38  
146 ash phla:u5   39  
173 at      
13 back word info *hla:i1 back[bone] 63  
13 back word info *lun2 back, behind    
165 bad, evil *hwa:i6-t Chinese   L
14 belly *luŋ2   59  
176 below *te3   50  
153 big      
97 bird *mluk8   1  
147 black *ʔnam1   1  
23 blood *phla:t7   28  
15 bone *tla:k7   4  
113 branch word info *ʔŋa5   29  
113 branch word info *ciŋ5      
18 breast      
56 child *la:k8   1  
131 cloud word info *m-xwa3   72  
139 cold word info *hnu1   72  
166 correct, true      
168 day *hŋwan1   41?  
10 dirty      
96 dog *k-hma1   61  
140 dry word info      
82 dull, blunt *dip8      
11 dust      
43 ear *khra1   8  
119 earth/soil *di6   58  
98 egg *krai5   41  
204 Eight word info *pja:t7 Chinese loanword   L
45 eye *thla1   1?  
180 far *kla:i1-v   54  
104 fat/grease *man2 oil 1  
60 father      
99 feather      
208 Fifty word info      
143 fire *pwai1   1  
111 fish *mprai3   64  
111 fish *pa1   64  
111 fish *mum6   63  
201 Five word info *ŋu4 Chinese loanword   L
116 flower *nuk7''   22  
132 fog *muk8   53  
200 Four word info      
117 fruit      
164 good *ɗa:i1   87  
118 grass      
151 green      
26 hair word info *pram1   47  
1 hand *k-mja1-t   1  
184 he/she      
24 head *kru3-f   1  
142 heavy      
61 house *hra:n1   46  
194 how? word info      
57 husband *ʔre1   35  
182 I      
193 if      
174 in, inside      
16 intestines *khja:i3   47  
126 lake      
114 leaf *pwa5   2?  
2 left      
4 leg/foot *kwa1 leg 42  
4 leg/foot *ti:n1 foot 12  
135 lightning *ʔdla:p7   55  
17 liver *tap7   1?  
155 long word info *ʔra:i3   65  
108 louse word info *nan1''      
54 man/male *mpa:n1   52  
103 meat/flesh *na:n4   58  
129 moon *nüa:n1''   1  
109 mosquito      
59 mother      
30 mouth *pa:k7   1?  
63 name      
158 narrow      
179 near *phlai5   73  
25 neck      
68 needle      
163 new *hmai5   34  
167 night *ʔȵam5 evening 55  
205 Nine word info      
195 no, not      
27 nose *ʔnaŋ1   1  
162 old word info *ka:u5-v old (of things) 93  
197 One word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
190 other      
160 painful, sick      
53 person/human being *la:k8 = child    
133 rain *xwin1   37  
102 rat *hnu3   59  
149 red      
3 right *hwa1   1?  
6 road/path      
115 root *kja:ŋ1      
65 rope *ʔla:k7   30  
112 rotten word info *na:u6   34  
125 salt      
121 sand      
124 sea      
203 Seven word info      
81 sharp *hra:i5 to be sharp 47?  
154 short word info *thrin3   64  
19 shoulder      
161 shy, ashamed      
202 Six word info *ljuk8 Chinese loanword   L
12 skin *hŋra1      
128 sky *ɓun1   51  
152 small      
145 smoke word info      
106 snake *dzu:i2   52  
110 spider      
130 star *hmlut7      
130 star *ʔdra:u1   1?  
79 stick/wood      
120 stone *pra1   27  
105 tail *khjut7      
206 Ten word info      
178 that      
62 thatch/roof      
187 they      
157 thick word info *ʔna1   47  
156 thin word info *ɓwa:ŋ1   39?  
177 this *na:i6   1  
183 thou      
199 Three word info      
134 thunder *pra3   60  
134 thunder *lai6      
134 thunder *ti:n3      
41 to bite *krip7   29  
137 to blow word info *hwa:t7 to blow (wind)    
137 to blow word info *dzup8   1?  
28 to breathe      
144 to burn word info      
91 to buy *trai3   35  
38 to chew word info *hma:k7   38  
38 to chew word info *hna:i5   40  
85 to choose *la:i6   26  
172 to climb word info *cha5 to ascend 26  
7 to come *hma1 to arrive 1  
7 to come *taŋ1 reach 4  
39 to cook word info      
196 to count *ȵai6'-i      
34 to cry *ʔȵe3-i   51  
78 to cut, hack word info *kat7      
78 to cut, hack word info *ka:t7      
75 to die, be dead *pjai1   1  
90 to dig      
50 to dream *pwjan1   8  
40 to drink *trwap7      
37 to eat *ca:n1   1  
95 to fall word info *tuk7 to drop 76  
95 to fall word info *lai4 fall    
22 to fear      
123 to flow      
101 to fly      
86 to grow word info      
44 to hear      
171 to hide word info      
72 to hit word info *dai2      
89 to hold word info      
69 to hunt word info      
74 to kill      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
33 to laugh *kru1   72  
49 to lie down word info      
76 to live, be alive *ɗip7 raw, live 1  
92 to open, uncover      
84 to plant *mpra1   1  
84 to plant *ljum2      
84 to plant *ʔdram1 to transplant (rice seedlings)    
93 to pound, beat word info      
64 to say      
77 to scratch word info      
46 to see *ʔlun1      
46 to see *ɗai3   68  
67 to sew word info      
70 to shoot word info      
51 to sit *dzu:i6-t Chinese   L
48 to sleep *nu:n2   66  
29 to sniff, smell *nun4   38  
36 to spit      
80 to split word info *pha5   58  
80 to split word info *hma:k7      
88 to squeeze word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
52 to stand      
73 to steal *hljak7   34  
42 to suck      
87 to swell word info      
9 to swim      
21 to think      
94 to throw word info      
66 to tie up, fasten      
8 to turn word info      
35 to vomit *trwak7   1  
5 to walk *pa:i1 to go, walk 54  
5 to walk *cha:m3 to walk, crawl 75  
83 to work word info      
47 to yawn      
32 tongue *ma2   1  
31 tooth *pjwan1   1  
207 Twenty word info      
198 Two word info *hra1   18  
138 warm word info      
122 water word info *ȵam3-ti   1?  
185 we word info *tra:u1 inclusive 11  
141 wet *ʔrak7   60?  
188 what? word info      
170 when? word info      
181 where? word info      
148 white      
189 who? word info      
159 wide      
58 wife      
136 wind *hlwum1   63  
100 wing *pwa5   53  
55 woman/female *ɓja:k7      
127 woods/forest *ɗuŋ1      
107 worm (earthworm) *dzan4   44  
169 year *mpe1   52  
150 yellow      
186 you      

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