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Language: Proto-Kam-Sui

Source/Author:  Graham Thurgood 
Notes:  Source: Thurgood, Graham. 1988. "Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 179-218. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.

Proto-Kam-Sui tones:
1 = Tone *A, voiceless
2 = Tone *A, voiced
3 = Tone *C, voiceless
4 = Tone *C, voiced
5 = Tone *B, voiceless
6 = Tone *B, voiced
7 = Tone *D, voiceless
8 = Tone *D, voiced
 
Problems:  Thurgood's reconstructions are still preliminary and are derived from limited data sets. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 128
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 5
 
Classification:  Tai-Kadai:Kam-Tai:Kam-Sui 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 7 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
2 left      
6 road/path      
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim      
10 dirty      
11 dust      
18 breast      
19 shoulder      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
21 to think      
22 to fear      
25 neck      
28 to breathe      
36 to spit      
39 to cook word info      
42 to suck      
44 to hear      
47 to yawn      
49 to lie down word info      
52 to stand      
58 wife      
59 mother      
60 father      
62 thatch/roof      
63 name      
64 to say      
66 to tie up, fasten      
67 to sew word info      
68 needle      
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
74 to kill      
77 to scratch word info      
79 stick/wood      
83 to work word info      
86 to grow word info      
87 to swell word info      
88 to squeeze word info      
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig      
92 to open, uncover      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
99 feather      
101 to fly      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
117 fruit      
118 grass      
121 sand      
123 to flow      
124 sea      
125 salt      
126 lake      
138 warm word info      
140 dry word info      
142 heavy      
144 to burn word info      
145 smoke word info      
148 white      
149 red      
150 yellow      
151 green      
152 small      
153 big      
158 narrow      
159 wide      
160 painful, sick      
161 shy, ashamed      
166 correct, true      
170 when? word info      
171 to hide word info      
173 at      
174 in, inside      
175 above      
178 that      
181 where? word info      
182 I      
183 thou      
184 he/she      
186 you      
187 they      
188 what? word info      
189 who? word info      
190 other      
191 all      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
197 One word info      
199 Three word info      
200 Four word info      
203 Seven word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
37 to eat *ca:n1   1  
172 to climb word info *cha5 to ascend 26  
5 to walk *cha:m3 to walk, crawl 75  
113 branch word info *ciŋ5      
72 to hit word info *dai2      
119 earth/soil *di6   58  
82 dull, blunt *dip8      
107 worm (earthworm) *dzan4   44  
106 snake *dzu:i2   52  
51 to sit *dzu:i6-t Chinese   L
137 to blow word info *dzup8   1?  
13 back word info *hla:i1 back[bone] 63  
73 to steal *hljak7   34  
136 wind *hlwum1   63  
7 to come *hma1 to arrive 1  
38 to chew word info *hma:k7   38  
80 to split word info *hma:k7      
163 new *hmai5   34  
130 star *hmlut7      
38 to chew word info *hna:i5   40  
139 cold word info *hnu1   72  
102 rat *hnu3   59  
198 Two word info *hra1   18  
81 sharp *hra:i5 to be sharp 47?  
61 house *hra:n1   46  
3 right *hwa1   1?  
165 bad, evil *hwa:i6-t Chinese   L
137 to blow word info *hwa:t7 to blow (wind)    
12 skin *hŋra1      
168 day *hŋwan1   41?  
96 dog *k-hma1   61  
1 hand *k-mja1-t   1  
78 to cut, hack word info *ka:t7      
162 old word info *ka:u5-v old (of things) 93  
78 to cut, hack word info *kat7      
16 intestines *khja:i3   47  
105 tail *khjut7      
43 ear *khra1   8  
115 root *kja:ŋ1      
180 far *kla:i1-v   54  
98 egg *krai5   41  
41 to bite *krip7   29  
33 to laugh *kru1   72  
24 head *kru3-f   1  
4 leg/foot *kwa1 leg 42  
85 to choose *la:i6   26  
53 person/human being *la:k8 = child    
56 child *la:k8   1  
95 to fall word info *lai4 fall    
134 thunder *lai6      
202 Six word info *ljuk8 Chinese loanword   L
84 to plant *ljum2      
13 back word info *lun2 back, behind    
14 belly *luŋ2   59  
131 cloud word info *m-xwa3   72  
32 tongue *ma2   1  
104 fat/grease *man2 oil 1  
97 bird *mluk8   1  
54 man/male *mpa:n1   52  
169 year *mpe1   52  
84 to plant *mpra1   1  
111 fish *mprai3   64  
132 fog *muk8   53  
111 fish *mum6   63  
177 this *na:i6   1  
103 meat/flesh *na:n4   58  
112 rotten word info *na:u6   34  
108 louse word info *nan1''      
48 to sleep *nu:n2   66  
116 flower *nuk7''   22  
29 to sniff, smell *nun4   38  
129 moon *nüa:n1''   1  
111 fish *pa1   64  
5 to walk *pa:i1 to go, walk 54  
30 mouth *pa:k7   1?  
80 to split word info *pha5   58  
23 blood *phla:t7   28  
179 near *phlai5   73  
146 ash *phwu:k7   38  
204 Eight word info *pja:t7 Chinese loanword   L
75 to die, be dead *pjai1   1  
31 tooth *pjwan1   1  
120 stone *pra1   27  
134 thunder *pra3   60  
26 hair word info *pram1   47  
100 wing *pwa5   53  
114 leaf *pwa5   2?  
143 fire *pwai1   1  
50 to dream *pwjan1   8  
17 liver *tap7   1?  
7 to come *taŋ1 reach 4  
176 below *te3   50  
45 eye *thla1   1?  
154 short word info *thrin3   64  
4 leg/foot *ti:n1 foot 12  
134 thunder *ti:n3      
15 bone *tla:k7   4  
185 we word info *tra:u1 inclusive 11  
91 to buy *trai3   35  
35 to vomit *trwak7   1  
40 to drink *trwap7      
95 to fall word info *tuk7 to drop 76  
133 rain *xwin1   37  
201 Five word info *ŋu4 Chinese loanword   L
196 to count *ȵai6'-i      
122 water word info *ȵam3-ti   1?  
55 woman/female *ɓja:k7      
128 sky *ɓun1   51  
156 thin word info *ɓwa:ŋ1   39?  
164 good *ɗa:i1   87  
46 to see *ɗai3   68  
76 to live, be alive *ɗip7 raw, live 1  
127 woods/forest *ɗuŋ1      
135 lightning *ʔdla:p7   55  
130 star *ʔdra:u1   1?  
84 to plant *ʔdram1 to transplant (rice seedlings)    
65 rope *ʔla:k7   30  
46 to see *ʔlun1      
157 thick word info *ʔna1   47  
147 black *ʔnam1   1  
27 nose *ʔnaŋ1   1  
155 long word info *ʔra:i3   65  
141 wet *ʔrak7   60?  
57 husband *ʔre1   35  
113 branch word info *ʔŋa5   29  
167 night *ʔȵam5 evening 55  
34 to cry *ʔȵe3-i   51  
146 ash phla:u5   39  

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