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Language: Proto-Kam-Sui

Source/Author:  Graham Thurgood 
Notes:  Source: Thurgood, Graham. 1988. "Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 179-218. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.

Proto-Kam-Sui tones:
1 = Tone *A, voiceless
2 = Tone *A, voiced
3 = Tone *C, voiceless
4 = Tone *C, voiced
5 = Tone *B, voiceless
6 = Tone *B, voiced
7 = Tone *D, voiceless
8 = Tone *D, voiced
 
Problems:  Thurgood's reconstructions are still preliminary and are derived from limited data sets. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 128
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 5
 
Classification:  Tai-Kadai:Kam-Tai:Kam-Sui 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing all of 7 entries

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
2 left      
6 road/path      
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim      
10 dirty      
11 dust      
18 breast      
19 shoulder      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
21 to think      
22 to fear      
25 neck      
28 to breathe      
36 to spit      
39 to cook word info      
42 to suck      
44 to hear      
47 to yawn      
49 to lie down word info      
52 to stand      
58 wife      
59 mother      
60 father      
62 thatch/roof      
63 name      
64 to say      
66 to tie up, fasten      
67 to sew word info      
68 needle      
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
74 to kill      
77 to scratch word info      
79 stick/wood      
83 to work word info      
86 to grow word info      
87 to swell word info      
88 to squeeze word info      
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig      
92 to open, uncover      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
99 feather      
101 to fly      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
117 fruit      
118 grass      
121 sand      
123 to flow      
124 sea      
125 salt      
126 lake      
138 warm word info      
140 dry word info      
142 heavy      
144 to burn word info      
145 smoke word info      
148 white      
149 red      
150 yellow      
151 green      
152 small      
153 big      
158 narrow      
159 wide      
160 painful, sick      
161 shy, ashamed      
166 correct, true      
170 when? word info      
171 to hide word info      
173 at      
174 in, inside      
175 above      
178 that      
181 where? word info      
182 I      
183 thou      
184 he/she      
186 you      
187 they      
188 what? word info      
189 who? word info      
190 other      
191 all      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
197 One word info      
199 Three word info      
200 Four word info      
203 Seven word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
12 skin *hŋra1      
13 back word info *lun2 back, behind    
40 to drink *trwap7      
46 to see *ʔlun1      
51 to sit *dzu:i6-t Chinese   L
53 person/human being *la:k8 = child    
55 woman/female *ɓja:k7      
72 to hit word info *dai2      
78 to cut, hack word info *kat7      
78 to cut, hack word info *ka:t7      
80 to split word info *hma:k7      
82 dull, blunt *dip8      
84 to plant *ljum2      
84 to plant *ʔdram1 to transplant (rice seedlings)    
95 to fall word info *lai4 fall    
105 tail *khjut7      
108 louse word info *nan1''      
113 branch word info *ciŋ5      
115 root *kja:ŋ1      
127 woods/forest *ɗuŋ1      
130 star *hmlut7      
134 thunder *lai6      
134 thunder *ti:n3      
137 to blow word info *hwa:t7 to blow (wind)    
165 bad, evil *hwa:i6-t Chinese   L
196 to count *ȵai6'-i      
201 Five word info *ŋu4 Chinese loanword   L
202 Six word info *ljuk8 Chinese loanword   L
204 Eight word info *pja:t7 Chinese loanword   L
1 hand *k-mja1-t   1  
7 to come *hma1 to arrive 1  
24 head *kru3-f   1  
27 nose *ʔnaŋ1   1  
31 tooth *pjwan1   1  
32 tongue *ma2   1  
35 to vomit *trwak7   1  
37 to eat *ca:n1   1  
56 child *la:k8   1  
75 to die, be dead *pjai1   1  
76 to live, be alive *ɗip7 raw, live 1  
84 to plant *mpra1   1  
97 bird *mluk8   1  
104 fat/grease *man2 oil 1  
129 moon *nüa:n1''   1  
143 fire *pwai1   1  
147 black *ʔnam1   1  
177 this *na:i6   1  
185 we word info *tra:u1 inclusive 11  
4 leg/foot *ti:n1 foot 12  
198 Two word info *hra1   18  
3 right *hwa1   1?  
17 liver *tap7   1?  
30 mouth *pa:k7   1?  
45 eye *thla1   1?  
122 water word info *ȵam3-ti   1?  
130 star *ʔdra:u1   1?  
137 to blow word info *dzup8   1?  
116 flower *nuk7''   22  
85 to choose *la:i6   26  
172 to climb word info *cha5 to ascend 26  
120 stone *pra1   27  
23 blood *phla:t7   28  
41 to bite *krip7   29  
113 branch word info *ʔŋa5   29  
114 leaf *pwa5   2?  
65 rope *ʔla:k7   30  
73 to steal *hljak7   34  
112 rotten word info *na:u6   34  
163 new *hmai5   34  
57 husband *ʔre1   35  
91 to buy *trai3   35  
133 rain *xwin1   37  
29 to sniff, smell *nun4   38  
38 to chew word info *hma:k7   38  
146 ash *phwu:k7   38  
146 ash phla:u5   39  
156 thin word info *ɓwa:ŋ1   39?  
7 to come *taŋ1 reach 4  
15 bone *tla:k7   4  
38 to chew word info *hna:i5   40  
98 egg *krai5   41  
168 day *hŋwan1   41?  
4 leg/foot *kwa1 leg 42  
107 worm (earthworm) *dzan4   44  
61 house *hra:n1   46  
16 intestines *khja:i3   47  
26 hair word info *pram1   47  
157 thick word info *ʔna1   47  
81 sharp *hra:i5 to be sharp 47?  
176 below *te3   50  
34 to cry *ʔȵe3-i   51  
128 sky *ɓun1   51  
54 man/male *mpa:n1   52  
106 snake *dzu:i2   52  
169 year *mpe1   52  
100 wing *pwa5   53  
132 fog *muk8   53  
5 to walk *pa:i1 to go, walk 54  
180 far *kla:i1-v   54  
135 lightning *ʔdla:p7   55  
167 night *ʔȵam5 evening 55  
80 to split word info *pha5   58  
103 meat/flesh *na:n4   58  
119 earth/soil *di6   58  
14 belly *luŋ2   59  
102 rat *hnu3   59  
134 thunder *pra3   60  
141 wet *ʔrak7   60?  
96 dog *k-hma1   61  
13 back word info *hla:i1 back[bone] 63  
111 fish *mum6   63  
136 wind *hlwum1   63  
111 fish *mprai3   64  
111 fish *pa1   64  
154 short word info *thrin3   64  
155 long word info *ʔra:i3   65  
48 to sleep *nu:n2   66  
46 to see *ɗai3   68  
33 to laugh *kru1   72  
131 cloud word info *m-xwa3   72  
139 cold word info *hnu1   72  
179 near *phlai5   73  
5 to walk *cha:m3 to walk, crawl 75  
95 to fall word info *tuk7 to drop 76  
43 ear *khra1   8  
50 to dream *pwjan1   8  
164 good *ɗa:i1   87  
162 old word info *ka:u5-v old (of things) 93  

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