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Language: Proto-Oceanic (Pawley)

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  from "PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS", A Pawley 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:(Proto) 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
175 above *atas   1  
191 all *udolu      
192 and      
146 ash *drapu(ʀ)      
173 at      
13 back word info *takuʀu   12  
165 bad, evil *saqat   1  
14 belly *tian   1  
176 below *papaq   1  
153 big *lapapt Lynch 2001 reconstrcts POc *lab(w)at 10  
97 bird *manuk probably in certain contexts modified by verb 'to fly' 1  
147 black *maqeto   1  
147 black *maqito   1  
23 blood *draʀaq   1  
15 bone *suʀi   52  
113 branch word info *maŋa      
18 breast *susu 'breast, milk' 1  
56 child *natu   5  
131 cloud word info *taqe ni laŋ 'prob. specifically of light clouds'    
139 cold word info      
166 correct, true *bonor 'true' 1  
168 day *qaco   1, 54  
10 dirty      
96 dog      
140 dry word info *masa 'dry, empty of liquid' Problematic because several senses of 'dry' occur in Pn langs and 200 wordlists vary among these 11  
82 dull, blunt      
11 dust *qapuk   1  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
119 earth/soil *qumun (earth) oven    
98 egg *katoluʀ   1  
204 Eight word info      
45 eye *mata   1  
180 far *sauq   1  
104 fat/grease *momoña rich fatty flesh, grease, oil 1, 65  
60 father *tama-ña 'his/her father' 1  
99 feather *pulu   1  
208 Fifty word info      
143 fire *api   1  
111 fish *ikan   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
116 flower *puŋa   1  
132 fog *kaput   1  
200 Four word info *pati   1, 65  
200 Four word info *pat   1  
117 fruit *puaq   1  
164 good *ma-pia Blust 1993 1  
118 grass *paliji 'grass, generic term' 1  
151 green      
26 hair word info *raun   40  
1 hand *lima   1  
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
24 head *qulu   1  
142 heavy *mapat   46  
61 house *ʀumwa 'house, dwelling' 1  
61 house *pale 'open sided building, meeting house' 14  
194 how? word info *kuya (v.st) be how, in what manner or condition 1  
57 husband      
182 I *au I (indep.) 1, 21  
193 if      
174 in, inside *(i)ralom   1  
16 intestines      
126 lake *rano   1  
114 leaf *rau   1  
2 left *mauʀi (hand) 1, 59  
2 left *mawiʀi (hand) 1, 59  
4 leg/foot *waqe   1, 100  
135 lightning *qusilak   2  
17 liver *qate   1  
155 long word info *ba(l,r)apu      
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
54 man/male *taumwaqane   1, 14  
103 meat/flesh *pisako 'animal flesh'(flesh of fish, etc) 10  
129 moon *pulan   1  
109 mosquito *ñamuk   1  
59 mother *tina-ña 'his/her mother' 1  
30 mouth *ŋujuŋ (external) 2  
63 name *qajan (flesh of fish, etc) 1  
158 narrow *kopit   48  
179 near *tata   9  
25 neck *ʀuqa (not throat) 18  
68 needle *saʀum   1  
163 new *paʀaqu   1  
167 night *boŋi   1  
205 Nine word info      
195 no, not *tika(i)   10  
27 nose *ijuŋ   1  
162 old word info *matuqa   1  
197 One word info *sa   1  
197 One word info *sakai   8  
197 One word info *tasa   41  
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
190 other *liqa 'additional, another' 2  
160 painful, sick *masakit '(1) be sick', (2) 'be in pain', (3) 'hurt, be painful' 1  
53 person/human being *taumata   1, 66  
53 person/human being *tamwata   1, 66  
133 rain *qusan   1  
102 rat *kasupe 'Rattus sp., commensal rats, as opposed, e.g. to large bush rats' 3  
149 red *meʀaq 'reddish brown, ?red' 1  
3 right      
6 road/path *jalan   1  
115 root *wakaʀ   2  
65 rope *tali 'cord' 1  
112 rotten word info *ba(l,r)a 'overripe' 13  
112 rotten word info *bobo(k) ? < PMP *bekbek 'mouldy?    
112 rotten word info *madaʀ 'overripe'    
125 salt *waiʀ tasik (water)    
121 sand *qone   1  
124 sea *masawa (open) 13  
203 Seven word info      
81 sharp *tajim 'to sharpen to a point' 1  
154 short word info *papaq (Blust 1993) 54  
154 short word info *papak (Blust 1993) 54  
19 shoulder *qapaʀa   1  
161 shy, ashamed *mayaq under 'ashamed' 1  
202 Six word info      
12 skin *kulit   1  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
152 small *rikiq   66  
145 smoke word info *qasu   2  
106 snake *mwata   12  
110 spider *lawaq   1  
130 star *pituqon   1  
79 stick/wood *kayu   1  
120 stone *patu   1  
105 tail *siku (of fish) 13  
206 Ten word info      
178 that      
62 thatch/roof *qatop   1  
187 they *ira   1  
157 thick word info *matolu (as cloth) 3  
156 thin word info *manipis   1  
177 this *eni   1  
177 this *ani   1  
183 thou *iko   1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
134 thunder *kuruk   1  
41 to bite *kaʀati-   1  
137 to blow word info *upu (with the breath) 4, 57  
28 to breathe *mañawa   1  
144 to burn word info      
91 to buy *poli   1  
38 to chew word info *mamaq   1  
85 to choose *piliq   1  
172 to climb word info *sake   2  
7 to come *lako mai   1  
39 to cook word info *tunu   9  
196 to count      
34 to cry      
78 to cut, hack word info      
75 to die, be dead      
90 to dig *kali   1  
90 to dig *keli   1  
50 to dream *nipi   1, 60  
50 to dream *mipi   1, 37  
40 to drink *inum   1  
37 to eat *kani   1  
95 to fall word info      
22 to fear *matakut   1  
123 to flow *tape   10  
101 to fly *laŋo 'housefly' x  
86 to grow word info *tubuq   1  
44 to hear *roŋoʀ   1  
171 to hide word info *puni   1  
72 to hit word info *tuki   8  
72 to hit word info *punipalu Blust (1993) posits POc *palu, 'to pound' 1  
89 to hold word info *taŋovi-      
89 to hold word info *kolom *kokom (Blust 1993) (continuing PMP) v. tr. *kumi, kukumi- 'hold s.t.'    
69 to hunt word info      
74 to kill *punuq (Blust 1993) 1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *kila-   18  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *kilala   18  
33 to laugh *malip   3  
49 to lie down word info *qeno   1  
76 to live, be alive *maqurip   1, 76  
92 to open, uncover      
84 to plant *tanom   2  
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
64 to say *posa   36  
77 to scratch word info *kadru(C) PAn *garuc (Tsuchida 1976) 44  
46 to see *kita   1  
67 to sew word info *saqit   2  
70 to shoot word info *pana   1  
51 to sit *nopo   16  
48 to sleep *maturu Two POc forms are well supported(continues PMP) 1  
29 to sniff, smell *ñami-   41  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14, 84  
80 to split word info *pasi 'split lengthwise' Several kinds of splitting are lexically, besides stative vs transitive uses of the same verb root.    
88 to squeeze word info      
71 to stab, pierce *soka 'to husk a coconut etc.' No one to one match. 67  
52 to stand *taqur   2  
73 to steal *panako   1, 58  
42 to suck *miji   8  
87 to swell word info *puke   10  
9 to swim *kaʀu   5  
21 to think *ronrom (a)POc *ronrom (Blust 1993) (b)PROc nan(o,u)mi- ; Given the range of witnesses supporting (a), we can infer that the forms in set (b) reflect an irregular change *nd > n that occurred, perhaps more than once, in certain Vanuatu languages and in Central Pa 13  
94 to throw word info      
66 to tie up, fasten *paqu-Ci Ci < POc paqu-Ci '(1) lash together, (2) construct (house, canoe)'    
8 to turn word info      
35 to vomit *mumuta Two forms must be reconstructed for 'to vomit' in POc and PCP: *mumuta and *lua. *mumuta continues a PMP etymon. Rotuman has a contrast between mumufa 'to vomit spew' and lua 'to spit or cast out of the mouth'. Churchward (1941:253) comments 1  
35 to vomit *luaq   8  
5 to walk *pano Oceanic languages often lack a term that specifically refers to walking as a mode of locomotion. It makes more sense to try to reconstruct a verb or verbs meaning 'to go'. 2  
83 to work word info *quma   1  
47 to yawn mawap   19  
32 tongue *maya   7  
32 tongue *mea   7  
31 tooth *nipon   1  
207 Twenty word info      
198 Two word info *rua   1  
138 warm word info *mapanas      
122 water word info *waiʀ 'water, river' 2  
185 we word info *kami   2  
141 wet *suʀu 'juice, soup', No strong candidate for POc, PCP or PPn 11  
188 what? word info *sapa   1  
188 what? word info *saa   1  
170 when? word info *ŋa-ijan   1  
181 where? word info *pea   3  
148 white *purak   3  
189 who? word info *sai   1  
159 wide *lapa (cf. POc *lapa 'big') 48  
58 wife      
136 wind *mataŋi (breeze) 1, 66  
100 wing *kapak   1  
55 woman/female *papine   1, 106  
127 woods/forest *wao 'bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited' 14  
107 worm (earthworm) *baya 'earthworm, worm (generic)'    
169 year *taqun   1  
150 yellow *aŋo (-aŋo) 'yellow' 9  
186 you      

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