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Language: Proto-Oceanic (Pawley)

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  from "PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS", A Pawley 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:(Proto) 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
3 right      
8 to turn word info      
10 dirty      
16 intestines      
34 to cry      
57 husband      
58 wife      
69 to hunt word info      
75 to die, be dead      
78 to cut, hack word info      
82 dull, blunt      
88 to squeeze word info      
92 to open, uncover      
94 to throw word info      
95 to fall word info      
96 dog      
139 cold word info      
144 to burn word info      
151 green      
173 at      
178 that      
186 you      
192 and      
193 if      
196 to count      
202 Six word info      
203 Seven word info      
204 Eight word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
1 hand *lima   1  
4 leg/foot *waqe   1, 100  
6 road/path *jalan   1  
7 to come *lako mai   1  
9 to swim *kaʀu   5  
11 dust *qapuk   1  
12 skin *kulit   1  
13 back word info *takuʀu   12  
14 belly *tian   1  
15 bone *suʀi   52  
17 liver *qate   1  
19 shoulder *qapaʀa   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *kila-   18  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *kilala   18  
22 to fear *matakut   1  
23 blood *draʀaq   1  
24 head *qulu   1  
26 hair word info *raun   40  
27 nose *ijuŋ   1  
28 to breathe *mañawa   1  
29 to sniff, smell *ñami-   41  
31 tooth *nipon   1  
32 tongue *maya   7  
32 tongue *mea   7  
33 to laugh *malip   3  
35 to vomit *luaq   8  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14, 84  
37 to eat *kani   1  
38 to chew word info *mamaq   1  
39 to cook word info *tunu   9  
40 to drink *inum   1  
41 to bite *kaʀati-   1  
42 to suck *miji   8  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
44 to hear *roŋoʀ   1  
45 eye *mata   1  
46 to see *kita   1  
47 to yawn mawap   19  
49 to lie down word info *qeno   1  
50 to dream *nipi   1, 60  
50 to dream *mipi   1, 37  
51 to sit *nopo   16  
52 to stand *taqur   2  
53 person/human being *taumata   1, 66  
53 person/human being *tamwata   1, 66  
54 man/male *taumwaqane   1, 14  
55 woman/female *papine   1, 106  
56 child *natu   5  
62 thatch/roof *qatop   1  
64 to say *posa   36  
67 to sew word info *saqit   2  
68 needle *saʀum   1  
70 to shoot word info *pana   1  
72 to hit word info *tuki   8  
73 to steal *panako   1, 58  
76 to live, be alive *maqurip   1, 76  
79 stick/wood *kayu   1  
83 to work word info *quma   1  
84 to plant *tanom   2  
85 to choose *piliq   1  
86 to grow word info *tubuq   1  
87 to swell word info *puke   10  
89 to hold word info *taŋovi-      
90 to dig *kali   1  
90 to dig *keli   1  
91 to buy *poli   1  
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
98 egg *katoluʀ   1  
99 feather *pulu   1  
100 wing *kapak   1  
106 snake *mwata   12  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
109 mosquito *ñamuk   1  
110 spider *lawaq   1  
111 fish *ikan   1  
113 branch word info *maŋa      
114 leaf *rau   1  
115 root *wakaʀ   2  
116 flower *puŋa   1  
117 fruit *puaq   1  
120 stone *patu   1  
121 sand *qone   1  
123 to flow *tape   10  
126 lake *rano   1  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
129 moon *pulan   1  
130 star *pituqon   1  
132 fog *kaput   1  
133 rain *qusan   1  
134 thunder *kuruk   1  
135 lightning *qusilak   2  
138 warm word info *mapanas      
142 heavy *mapat   46  
143 fire *api   1  
145 smoke word info *qasu   2  
146 ash *drapu(ʀ)      
147 black *maqeto   1  
147 black *maqito   1  
148 white *purak   3  
152 small *rikiq   66  
155 long word info *ba(l,r)apu      
156 thin word info *manipis   1  
158 narrow *kopit   48  
162 old word info *matuqa   1  
163 new *paʀaqu   1  
165 bad, evil *saqat   1  
167 night *boŋi   1  
168 day *qaco   1, 54  
169 year *taqun   1  
170 when? word info *ŋa-ijan   1  
171 to hide word info *puni   1  
172 to climb word info *sake   2  
174 in, inside *(i)ralom   1  
175 above *atas   1  
176 below *papaq   1  
177 this *eni   1  
177 this *ani   1  
179 near *tata   9  
180 far *sauq   1  
181 where? word info *pea   3  
183 thou *iko   1  
185 we word info *kami   2  
187 they *ira   1  
188 what? word info *sapa   1  
188 what? word info *saa   1  
189 who? word info *sai   1  
191 all *udolu      
195 no, not *tika(i)   10  
197 One word info *sa   1  
197 One word info *sakai   8  
197 One word info *tasa   41  
198 Two word info *rua   1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
200 Four word info *pati   1, 65  
200 Four word info *pat   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
159 wide *lapa (cf. POc *lapa 'big') 48  
160 painful, sick *masakit '(1) be sick', (2) 'be in pain', (3) 'hurt, be painful' 1  
190 other *liqa 'additional, another' 2  
103 meat/flesh *pisako 'animal flesh'(flesh of fish, etc) 10  
18 breast *susu 'breast, milk' 1  
127 woods/forest *wao 'bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited' 14  
65 rope *tali 'cord' 1  
140 dry word info *masa 'dry, empty of liquid' Problematic because several senses of 'dry' occur in Pn langs and 200 wordlists vary among these 11  
107 worm (earthworm) *baya 'earthworm, worm (generic)'    
118 grass *paliji 'grass, generic term' 1  
60 father *tama-ña 'his/her father' 1  
59 mother *tina-ña 'his/her mother' 1  
61 house *ʀumwa 'house, dwelling' 1  
101 to fly *laŋo 'housefly' x  
141 wet *suʀu 'juice, soup', No strong candidate for POc, PCP or PPn 11  
61 house *pale 'open sided building, meeting house' 14  
112 rotten word info *ba(l,r)a 'overripe' 13  
112 rotten word info *madaʀ 'overripe'    
131 cloud word info *taqe ni laŋ 'prob. specifically of light clouds'    
102 rat *kasupe 'Rattus sp., commensal rats, as opposed, e.g. to large bush rats' 3  
149 red *meʀaq 'reddish brown, ?red' 1  
80 to split word info *pasi 'split lengthwise' Several kinds of splitting are lexically, besides stative vs transitive uses of the same verb root.    
71 to stab, pierce *soka 'to husk a coconut etc.' No one to one match. 67  
81 sharp *tajim 'to sharpen to a point' 1  
166 correct, true *bonor 'true' 1  
122 water word info *waiʀ 'water, river' 2  
150 yellow *aŋo (-aŋo) 'yellow' 9  
21 to think *ronrom (a)POc *ronrom (Blust 1993) (b)PROc nan(o,u)mi- ; Given the range of witnesses supporting (a), we can infer that the forms in set (b) reflect an irregular change *nd > n that occurred, perhaps more than once, in certain Vanuatu languages and in Central Pa 13  
157 thick word info *matolu (as cloth) 3  
74 to kill *punuq (Blust 1993) 1  
154 short word info *papaq (Blust 1993) 54  
154 short word info *papak (Blust 1993) 54  
136 wind *mataŋi (breeze) 1, 66  
119 earth/soil *qumun (earth) oven    
30 mouth *ŋujuŋ (external) 2  
63 name *qajan (flesh of fish, etc) 1  
2 left *mauʀi (hand) 1, 59  
2 left *mawiʀi (hand) 1, 59  
25 neck *ʀuqa (not throat) 18  
105 tail *siku (of fish) 13  
124 sea *masawa (open) 13  
194 how? word info *kuya (v.st) be how, in what manner or condition 1  
125 salt *waiʀ tasik (water)    
137 to blow word info *upu (with the breath) 4, 57  
89 to hold word info *kolom *kokom (Blust 1993) (continuing PMP) v. tr. *kumi, kukumi- 'hold s.t.'    
112 rotten word info *bobo(k) ? < PMP *bekbek 'mouldy?    
72 to hit word info *punipalu Blust (1993) posits POc *palu, 'to pound' 1  
164 good *ma-pia Blust 1993 1  
66 to tie up, fasten *paqu-Ci Ci < POc paqu-Ci '(1) lash together, (2) construct (house, canoe)'    
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
182 I *au I (indep.) 1, 21  
153 big *lapapt Lynch 2001 reconstrcts POc *lab(w)at 10  
5 to walk *pano Oceanic languages often lack a term that specifically refers to walking as a mode of locomotion. It makes more sense to try to reconstruct a verb or verbs meaning 'to go'. 2  
77 to scratch word info *kadru(C) PAn *garuc (Tsuchida 1976) 44  
97 bird *manuk probably in certain contexts modified by verb 'to fly' 1  
104 fat/grease *momoña rich fatty flesh, grease, oil 1, 65  
35 to vomit *mumuta Two forms must be reconstructed for 'to vomit' in POc and PCP: *mumuta and *lua. *mumuta continues a PMP etymon. Rotuman has a contrast between mumufa 'to vomit spew' and lua 'to spit or cast out of the mouth'. Churchward (1941:253) comments 1  
48 to sleep *maturu Two POc forms are well supported(continues PMP) 1  
161 shy, ashamed *mayaq under 'ashamed' 1  

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