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Language: Proto-Oceanic (Pawley)

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  from "PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS", A Pawley 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:(Proto) 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

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Showing all of 14 entries

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
3 right      
8 to turn word info      
10 dirty      
16 intestines      
34 to cry      
57 husband      
58 wife      
69 to hunt word info      
75 to die, be dead      
78 to cut, hack word info      
82 dull, blunt      
88 to squeeze word info      
92 to open, uncover      
94 to throw word info      
95 to fall word info      
96 dog      
139 cold word info      
144 to burn word info      
151 green      
173 at      
178 that      
186 you      
192 and      
193 if      
196 to count      
202 Six word info      
203 Seven word info      
204 Eight word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
174 in, inside *(i)ralom   1  
177 this *ani   1  
143 fire *api   1  
175 above *atas   1  
182 I *au I (indep.) 1, 21  
150 yellow *aŋo (-aŋo) 'yellow' 9  
112 rotten word info *ba(l,r)a 'overripe' 13  
155 long word info *ba(l,r)apu      
107 worm (earthworm) *baya 'earthworm, worm (generic)'    
112 rotten word info *bobo(k) ? < PMP *bekbek 'mouldy?    
166 correct, true *bonor 'true' 1  
167 night *boŋi   1  
146 ash *drapu(ʀ)      
23 blood *draʀaq   1  
177 this *eni   1  
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
27 nose *ijuŋ   1  
111 fish *ikan   1  
183 thou *iko   1  
40 to drink *inum   1  
187 they *ira   1  
6 road/path *jalan   1  
77 to scratch word info *kadru(C) PAn *garuc (Tsuchida 1976) 44  
90 to dig *kali   1  
185 we word info *kami   2  
37 to eat *kani   1  
100 wing *kapak   1  
132 fog *kaput   1  
102 rat *kasupe 'Rattus sp., commensal rats, as opposed, e.g. to large bush rats' 3  
98 egg *katoluʀ   1  
79 stick/wood *kayu   1  
41 to bite *kaʀati-   1  
9 to swim *kaʀu   5  
90 to dig *keli   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *kila-   18  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *kilala   18  
46 to see *kita   1  
89 to hold word info *kolom *kokom (Blust 1993) (continuing PMP) v. tr. *kumi, kukumi- 'hold s.t.'    
158 narrow *kopit   48  
12 skin *kulit   1  
134 thunder *kuruk   1  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
194 how? word info *kuya (v.st) be how, in what manner or condition 1  
7 to come *lako mai   1  
159 wide *lapa (cf. POc *lapa 'big') 48  
153 big *lapapt Lynch 2001 reconstrcts POc *lab(w)at 10  
110 spider *lawaq   1  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
101 to fly *laŋo 'housefly' x  
1 hand *lima   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
190 other *liqa 'additional, another' 2  
35 to vomit *luaq   8  
164 good *ma-pia Blust 1993 1  
112 rotten word info *madaʀ 'overripe'    
33 to laugh *malip   3  
38 to chew word info *mamaq   1  
156 thin word info *manipis   1  
97 bird *manuk probably in certain contexts modified by verb 'to fly' 1  
138 warm word info *mapanas      
142 heavy *mapat   46  
147 black *maqeto   1  
147 black *maqito   1  
76 to live, be alive *maqurip   1, 76  
140 dry word info *masa 'dry, empty of liquid' Problematic because several senses of 'dry' occur in Pn langs and 200 wordlists vary among these 11  
160 painful, sick *masakit '(1) be sick', (2) 'be in pain', (3) 'hurt, be painful' 1  
124 sea *masawa (open) 13  
45 eye *mata   1  
22 to fear *matakut   1  
136 wind *mataŋi (breeze) 1, 66  
157 thick word info *matolu (as cloth) 3  
162 old word info *matuqa   1  
48 to sleep *maturu Two POc forms are well supported(continues PMP) 1  
2 left *mauʀi (hand) 1, 59  
2 left *mawiʀi (hand) 1, 59  
32 tongue *maya   7  
161 shy, ashamed *mayaq under 'ashamed' 1  
28 to breathe *mañawa   1  
113 branch word info *maŋa      
32 tongue *mea   7  
149 red *meʀaq 'reddish brown, ?red' 1  
42 to suck *miji   8  
50 to dream *mipi   1, 37  
104 fat/grease *momoña rich fatty flesh, grease, oil 1, 65  
35 to vomit *mumuta Two forms must be reconstructed for 'to vomit' in POc and PCP: *mumuta and *lua. *mumuta continues a PMP etymon. Rotuman has a contrast between mumufa 'to vomit spew' and lua 'to spit or cast out of the mouth'. Churchward (1941:253) comments 1  
106 snake *mwata   12  
56 child *natu   5  
50 to dream *nipi   1, 60  
31 tooth *nipon   1  
51 to sit *nopo   16  
61 house *pale 'open sided building, meeting house' 14  
118 grass *paliji 'grass, generic term' 1  
70 to shoot word info *pana   1  
73 to steal *panako   1, 58  
5 to walk *pano Oceanic languages often lack a term that specifically refers to walking as a mode of locomotion. It makes more sense to try to reconstruct a verb or verbs meaning 'to go'. 2  
154 short word info *papak (Blust 1993) 54  
154 short word info *papaq (Blust 1993) 54  
176 below *papaq   1  
55 woman/female *papine   1, 106  
66 to tie up, fasten *paqu-Ci Ci < POc paqu-Ci '(1) lash together, (2) construct (house, canoe)'    
80 to split word info *pasi 'split lengthwise' Several kinds of splitting are lexically, besides stative vs transitive uses of the same verb root.    
200 Four word info *pat   1  
200 Four word info *pati   1, 65  
120 stone *patu   1  
163 new *paʀaqu   1  
181 where? word info *pea   3  
85 to choose *piliq   1  
103 meat/flesh *pisako 'animal flesh'(flesh of fish, etc) 10  
130 star *pituqon   1  
91 to buy *poli   1  
64 to say *posa   36  
117 fruit *puaq   1  
87 to swell word info *puke   10  
129 moon *pulan   1  
99 feather *pulu   1  
171 to hide word info *puni   1  
72 to hit word info *punipalu Blust (1993) posits POc *palu, 'to pound' 1  
74 to kill *punuq (Blust 1993) 1  
148 white *purak   3  
116 flower *puŋa   1  
168 day *qaco   1, 54  
63 name *qajan (flesh of fish, etc) 1  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14, 84  
19 shoulder *qapaʀa   1  
11 dust *qapuk   1  
145 smoke word info *qasu   2  
17 liver *qate   1  
62 thatch/roof *qatop   1  
49 to lie down word info *qeno   1  
121 sand *qone   1  
24 head *qulu   1  
83 to work word info *quma   1  
119 earth/soil *qumun (earth) oven    
133 rain *qusan   1  
135 lightning *qusilak   2  
126 lake *rano   1  
114 leaf *rau   1  
26 hair word info *raun   40  
152 small *rikiq   66  
21 to think *ronrom (a)POc *ronrom (Blust 1993) (b)PROc nan(o,u)mi- ; Given the range of witnesses supporting (a), we can infer that the forms in set (b) reflect an irregular change *nd > n that occurred, perhaps more than once, in certain Vanuatu languages and in Central Pa 13  
44 to hear *roŋoʀ   1  
198 Two word info *rua   1  
197 One word info *sa   1  
188 what? word info *saa   1  
189 who? word info *sai   1  
197 One word info *sakai   8  
172 to climb word info *sake   2  
188 what? word info *sapa   1  
165 bad, evil *saqat   1  
67 to sew word info *saqit   2  
180 far *sauq   1  
68 needle *saʀum   1  
105 tail *siku (of fish) 13  
71 to stab, pierce *soka 'to husk a coconut etc.' No one to one match. 67  
18 breast *susu 'breast, milk' 1  
15 bone *suʀi   52  
141 wet *suʀu 'juice, soup', No strong candidate for POc, PCP or PPn 11  
81 sharp *tajim 'to sharpen to a point' 1  
13 back word info *takuʀu   12  
65 rope *tali 'cord' 1  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
60 father *tama-ña 'his/her father' 1  
53 person/human being *tamwata   1, 66  
84 to plant *tanom   2  
123 to flow *tape   10  
131 cloud word info *taqe ni laŋ 'prob. specifically of light clouds'    
169 year *taqun   1  
52 to stand *taqur   2  
197 One word info *tasa   41  
179 near *tata   9  
53 person/human being *taumata   1, 66  
54 man/male *taumwaqane   1, 14  
89 to hold word info *taŋovi-      
14 belly *tian   1  
195 no, not *tika(i)   10  
59 mother *tina-ña 'his/her mother' 1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
86 to grow word info *tubuq   1  
72 to hit word info *tuki   8  
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
39 to cook word info *tunu   9  
191 all *udolu      
137 to blow word info *upu (with the breath) 4, 57  
122 water word info *waiʀ 'water, river' 2  
125 salt *waiʀ tasik (water)    
115 root *wakaʀ   2  
127 woods/forest *wao 'bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited' 14  
4 leg/foot *waqe   1, 100  
29 to sniff, smell *ñami-   41  
109 mosquito *ñamuk   1  
170 when? word info *ŋa-ijan   1  
30 mouth *ŋujuŋ (external) 2  
61 house *ʀumwa 'house, dwelling' 1  
25 neck *ʀuqa (not throat) 18  
47 to yawn mawap   19  

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