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Language: Proto-Polynesian

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  From: PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS. Unpublished list, dated 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian 
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Showing 3 of 34 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
175 above *i luŋa PPn shows lexical replacement. 9  
191 all *katoa PPn shows a lexical replacement 13  
192 and      
146 ash *refu (-refu) (ashes) 67  
173 at      
13 back word info *tuqa   11  
165 bad, evil *saqa ?'bad, of improper conduct, unseemly, forbidden' 1  
14 belly *manawa 'belly, stomach', check Geraghty 1984, who posits PCP *manawa 9  
176 below *lalo PPn shows a replacement innovation. Probably a semantic shift, as suggested by PMic *lalo 'deep' 8  
153 big *lasi PPn show a replacement innovation. 12  
97 bird *manu (+ *lele 'to fly') 1  
147 black *quli(-quli) PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
23 blood *toto PPn shows lexical replacement. POc *toto 'sap of plants' is reconstructable 4  
15 bone *hui   52  
113 branch word info *laqa(-laqa) 'small branch(es)' 1  
18 breast *susu or *huhu also milk 1  
56 child *tama 'child, son' PPn *tamaqiti, poss. singular, 6  
131 cloud word info *qao Probable lexical replacement in PCP/PPn. 12  
139 cold word info *makalili   1, 52  
166 correct, true      
168 day *raqani   6  
10 dirty *kelekele This is reconstructed for 'black' or 'dark', not for 'dirty' -MW 10  
96 dog      
140 dry word info *matuqu   66  
82 dull, blunt *mata putu   1  
82 dull, blunt *paku   61  
82 dull, blunt *pengu   12  
82 dull, blunt *penu   12  
82 dull, blunt ?*putu For PMP Blust (1993) gives both *dumpul and *pudul. From the latter he derives POc *(b,p)urul. From the former one would expect POc *ru(b,p)ul. There is no standout candidate for PPn or PCP. Geraghty 1983 proposes PEOc *pusuki. 1  
11 dust *efu   1  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
119 earth/soil *kele   10  
98 egg      
204 Eight word info      
45 eye *mata   1  
180 far *mamaqo PPn shows lexical replacement. 13  
104 fat/grease *momona 'rich fatty flesh, 1, 65  
60 father *tamana   1  
99 feather *fulu-fulu   1  
208 Fifty word info      
143 fire *afi   1  
111 fish *ika   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
116 flower *fuŋa   72  
132 fog *kofu   1, 47  
200 Four word info *faa   1, 66  
117 fruit *fua (qi ra?akau) 1  
164 good *malie 'nice, pleasant' 16  
118 grass *mutia grass (generic) 13  
118 grass *mouku   58  
118 grass *mutie grass (generic) 13  
151 green ? * mata Possibly no primary colour term 'green' in POc. 1  
26 hair word info *lau-qulu <   40  
1 hand *lima   1, 64  
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
24 head *qulu   1  
142 heavy *ma-mafa (b)PEPn *taumafa, *taimafa 46  
61 house *fale PPn shows lexical replacement 14  
194 how? word info *pe(he)fea PPn shows lexical replacement. 11  
57 husband      
182 I *au (indep.) 1, 21  
193 if *rano      
174 in, inside *(i) loto PPn shows replacement. PPn has *lalo 'under, below' with semantic shift.(hand) 5  
16 intestines      
126 lake *loto   6  
114 leaf *lau (qi raqakau)   1  
2 left *sema *sema has reflexes in EPn as well as Tongic and NPn. 11  
2 left *maui *maui Outlier isogloss 1, 59  
4 leg/foot *waqe   1, 100  
135 lightning *quhila   2  
17 liver *qate   1  
155 long word info *loa   12, 105  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
54 man/male *taqane PPn shows irregular loss of PCP ŋw. 1, 11  
103 meat/flesh *kanofi 'flesh of animal or coconut, kernel or hard core' 14  
129 moon *marama 'moon, moonlight' 7  
109 mosquito *namu   1  
59 mother *tinana   1  
30 mouth *ŋutu 'mouth, beak' 2  
63 name *hiŋoa PPn shows lexical replacement 6  
158 narrow *faa-riki 'narrow' 84  
179 near *tata   9  
25 neck *ua   18  
68 needle *sika 'net needle' 9  
163 new *foqou   1  
167 night *poo   1  
205 Nine word info      
195 no, not *qikai   10, 83  
27 nose *isu   1  
162 old word info tuai (1) 'old, of times, (2) late 48  
197 One word info *taha   41  
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
190 other *taha      
160 painful, sick *mamahi (a) painful 10  
160 painful, sick *masaki (b) sick 1  
53 person/human being *taŋata   1, 66, 97  
133 rain *quha (noun) 1  
102 rat *kumaa   13  
149 red *kula   13  
3 right *sako 'straight, erect' x  
6 road/path *hala   1  
115 root *aka   2  
65 rope *taula PMic *tali 'rope',Pn: Niu toua 'rope', EFu, Nuk taula, Ren tauga, PCEPn *taura 'rope', (b) 9  
112 rotten word info *pala 'rotten, as overripe fruit or tubers' 13  
125 salt *masima   3  
121 sand *qone   1  
124 sea *wasa If not a diffusion in Fiji-W. Polynesia area. (open) sea 12  
203 Seven word info      
81 sharp *ŋata 'sharp'(as knife) 36  
154 short word info *pukupuku   3  
19 shoulder *uma PPn shows lexical replacement 10  
161 shy, ashamed *maqaa ashamed (?) 1  
161 shy, ashamed *maa ashamed 1  
202 Six word info      
12 skin *kili   1  
128 sky *laŋi   1  
152 small *qiti   1  
145 smoke word info *qahu   2  
145 smoke word info *qahu-afi   2  
106 snake *ŋata   12  
110 spider *puŋa-lewelewe   1, 57  
130 star *fetuqu   1  
79 stick/wood *suki 'pierce'to stab (or stick, no one to one match)    
120 stone *maka   4  
105 tail *hiku (of fish) 13  
206 Ten word info      
178 that *era (distant)    
62 thatch/roof      
187 they *kila-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu 'paucal') 1, 19  
187 they *la-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu 'paucal') 1, 72  
157 thick word info *matolutolu   3  
156 thin word info *manifinifi (as cloth) 1  
177 this *eni   1  
183 thou *koe   1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
134 thunder *mana 'thunder, supernatural force' 37  
41 to bite *uqu-ti Pn: Ton, Niu, Sam, EFu, EUv, Tik, Pil, Ren    
137 to blow word info *pupusi (with the breath) (no to) 6  
28 to breathe *maanawa   1  
144 to burn word info *wela-tia ‘burnt’ be alight 63  
91 to buy *fakatau mai PPn shows lexical replacement 9  
38 to chew word info *mama   1  
85 to choose *fili   1  
172 to climb word info *kake PPn shows lexical replacement 32  
7 to come ? fano mai PPn shows a possible replacement innovation. 1, 23  
39 to cook word info *saka   2  
196 to count *tau   8  
34 to cry      
78 to cut, hack word info *kai(h,s)aqa      
75 to die, be dead *mate   1  
90 to dig *keli   1  
50 to dream *miti   36  
50 to dream *mohe-miti   7, 36  
40 to drink *inu   1  
37 to eat *kai   1, 47  
95 to fall word info *too 'to fall, drop' 14  
22 to fear *mataku   1  
123 to flow *sali as a stream'flow (?in a small stream), trickle' 24  
101 to fly *lele PPn loses POc form. 11  
86 to grow word info *tupu   1  
44 to hear *roŋo   1  
171 to hide word info *funi PT: Motu huni-a 'to hide' 1  
72 to hit word info *tuki (a) to pound 8  
72 to hit word info *paki (b) to slap 6  
89 to hold word info      
69 to hunt word info *tuli-manu   8  
74 to kill *faka-mate   2  
74 to kill *ta-mate-   2  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *qiloa   13  
33 to laugh *kata PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
49 to lie down word info *takoto   7  
76 to live, be alive      
92 to open, uncover *tatala (a door, container) 10  
84 to plant *too PPn shows lexical replacement. 4  
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
64 to say *tala (to speak) tell, relate, (n.) talk, message' 60  
77 to scratch word info *waku sure? not *laku?-MW 9  
46 to see *kite   1  
67 to sew word info *tuitui PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning 'to sew' 13, 16  
67 to sew word info *suki PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning 'to sew' 17  
67 to sew word info *tui   13, 16  
70 to shoot word info      
51 to sit *nofo   16  
48 to sleep *mohe PCP shows a replacement innovation, reflected by Fijian moce, mose, Rotuman mose, PPn *mohe. PCP *mo(c,s)e has probable antecedents in POc but shows semantic shift. 10, 109  
29 to sniff, smell      
36 to spit *qanu   14, 84, 121  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14, 84  
80 to split word info *fasi (a) split s.t., cleave s.t. 4  
80 to split word info *isi (b) split, cut lengthwise, tear off in long strips 7  
80 to split word info *faa (c) burst, split open 5  
80 to split word info *ma-faa (d) burst, split open 5, 72  
80 to split word info *ma-fola (e) be split open 1  
80 to split word info *fola (e) be split open 1  
88 to squeeze word info *kumi (a)'massage' 14  
88 to squeeze word info *foo (b) 'squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing' 8, 2  
88 to squeeze word info *fofoo (b) 'squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing' 8, 2  
71 to stab, pierce *suki (or stick) 'pierce' 1, 8  
52 to stand *tuqu   2  
73 to steal *kai(h,s)aqa   7  
42 to suck *miti   8  
42 to suck *susu (b) 'suck the breast' 25  
87 to swell word info *fufula   7  
9 to swim *kaukau is this really reduplicated? not *kau 5  
21 to think *manatu PPn shows lexical replacement 7  
94 to throw word info *lii 'cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)' 79  
94 to throw word info *liaki 'cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)'    
66 to tie up, fasten *faqu-si   11  
8 to turn word info *fuli Possible replacement in PPn 15  
35 to vomit *lua   8  
35 to vomit *lua-qi   8, 31  
5 to walk *fano (a) 'go, move' 2  
5 to walk *saqele (b) 'walk, go' 6  
5 to walk *qalu (c) 1. 'go' 2. 'follow' 34  
5 to walk *roo (d) 'go (pl. subject)' (suppletive plural of fano 'go, sing. sub.)    
83 to work word info *quma   1  
47 to yawn *mawawa   19  
32 tongue *qalelo Lexical replacement in PPn 15  
31 tooth *nifo   1  
207 Twenty word info      
198 Two word info *rua   1  
138 warm word info *mafana   1, 72  
138 warm word info *mafana-fana   1, 72  
122 water word info *faka-ranu *(v.) 'to wash s.t. in fresh water'    
185 we word info *kima-tou (excl pl) 2, 39  
141 wet *suu (Vst) 'watery, wet' 11  
188 what? word info *hafa   1  
188 what? word info *haa   1  
170 when? word info *ŋaiSa   1  
181 where? word info *fea   3, 35  
148 white *tea   8  
189 who? word info *hai   1  
159 wide *faa-lasi wide    
159 wide *lau-lasi wide 73, 9  
159 wide *lau-efa wide 73, 48  
58 wife *qasawana 'wife' 1  
136 wind *mataŋi   1, 66  
100 wing *kapakau   1, 59  
55 woman/female *fafine   1, 106  
127 woods/forest *wao 'bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited' 14  
107 worm (earthworm) *kelemutu   9  
169 year *taqu   1  
150 yellow *reŋareŋa,*felo(-felo) 'yellow' (also 'turmeric'),'yellowish, reddish yellow' 10, 11  
186 you      

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