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Language: Proto-Polynesian

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  From: PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS. Unpublished list, dated 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian 
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Showing 3 of 34 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
16 intestines      
29 to sniff, smell      
34 to cry      
57 husband      
62 thatch/roof      
70 to shoot word info      
76 to live, be alive      
89 to hold word info      
96 dog      
98 egg      
166 correct, true      
173 at      
186 you      
192 and      
202 Six word info      
203 Seven word info      
204 Eight word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
134 thunder *mana 'thunder, supernatural force' 37  
97 bird *manu (+ *lele 'to fly') 1  
174 in, inside *(i) loto PPn shows replacement. PPn has *lalo 'under, below' with semantic shift.(hand) 5  
143 fire *afi   1  
115 root *aka   2  
182 I *au (indep.) 1, 21  
11 dust *efu   1  
177 this *eni   1  
178 that *era (distant)    
80 to split word info *faa (c) burst, split open 5  
200 Four word info *faa   1, 66  
159 wide *faa-lasi wide    
158 narrow *faa-riki 'narrow' 84  
55 woman/female *fafine   1, 106  
74 to kill *faka-mate   2  
122 water word info *faka-ranu *(v.) 'to wash s.t. in fresh water'    
91 to buy *fakatau mai PPn shows lexical replacement 9  
61 house *fale PPn shows lexical replacement 14  
5 to walk *fano (a) 'go, move' 2  
66 to tie up, fasten *faqu-si   11  
80 to split word info *fasi (a) split s.t., cleave s.t. 4  
181 where? word info *fea   3, 35  
130 star *fetuqu   1  
85 to choose *fili   1  
88 to squeeze word info *fofoo (b) 'squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing' 8, 2  
80 to split word info *fola (e) be split open 1  
88 to squeeze word info *foo (b) 'squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing' 8, 2  
163 new *foqou   1  
117 fruit *fua (qi ra?akau) 1  
87 to swell word info *fufula   7  
8 to turn word info *fuli Possible replacement in PPn 15  
99 feather *fulu-fulu   1  
171 to hide word info *funi PT: Motu huni-a 'to hide' 1  
116 flower *fuŋa   72  
188 what? word info *haa   1  
188 what? word info *hafa   1  
189 who? word info *hai   1  
6 road/path *hala   1  
105 tail *hiku (of fish) 13  
63 name *hiŋoa PPn shows lexical replacement 6  
15 bone *hui   52  
175 above *i luŋa PPn shows lexical replacement. 9  
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
111 fish *ika   1  
40 to drink *inu   1  
80 to split word info *isi (b) split, cut lengthwise, tear off in long strips 7  
27 nose *isu   1  
37 to eat *kai   1, 47  
73 to steal *kai(h,s)aqa   7  
78 to cut, hack word info *kai(h,s)aqa      
172 to climb word info *kake PPn shows lexical replacement 32  
103 meat/flesh *kanofi 'flesh of animal or coconut, kernel or hard core' 14  
100 wing *kapakau   1, 59  
33 to laugh *kata PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
191 all *katoa PPn shows a lexical replacement 13  
9 to swim *kaukau is this really reduplicated? not *kau 5  
119 earth/soil *kele   10  
10 dirty *kelekele This is reconstructed for 'black' or 'dark', not for 'dirty' -MW 10  
107 worm (earthworm) *kelemutu   9  
90 to dig *keli   1  
187 they *kila-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu 'paucal') 1, 19  
12 skin *kili   1  
185 we word info *kima-tou (excl pl) 2, 39  
46 to see *kite   1  
183 thou *koe   1  
132 fog *kofu   1, 47  
149 red *kula   13  
102 rat *kumaa   13  
88 to squeeze word info *kumi (a)'massage' 14  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
187 they *la-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu 'paucal') 1, 72  
176 below *lalo PPn shows a replacement innovation. Probably a semantic shift, as suggested by PMic *lalo 'deep' 8  
113 branch word info *laqa(-laqa) 'small branch(es)' 1  
153 big *lasi PPn show a replacement innovation. 12  
114 leaf *lau (qi raqakau)   1  
159 wide *lau-efa wide 73, 48  
159 wide *lau-lasi wide 73, 9  
26 hair word info *lau-qulu <   40  
128 sky *laŋi   1  
101 to fly *lele PPn loses POc form. 11  
94 to throw word info *liaki 'cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)'    
94 to throw word info *lii 'cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)' 79  
1 hand *lima   1, 64  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
155 long word info *loa   12, 105  
126 lake *loto   6  
35 to vomit *lua   8  
35 to vomit *lua-qi   8, 31  
80 to split word info *ma-faa (d) burst, split open 5, 72  
80 to split word info *ma-fola (e) be split open 1  
142 heavy *ma-mafa (b)PEPn *taumafa, *taimafa 46  
161 shy, ashamed *maa ashamed 1  
28 to breathe *maanawa   1  
138 warm word info *mafana   1, 72  
138 warm word info *mafana-fana   1, 72  
120 stone *maka   4  
139 cold word info *makalili   1, 52  
164 good *malie 'nice, pleasant' 16  
38 to chew word info *mama   1  
160 painful, sick *mamahi (a) painful 10  
180 far *mamaqo PPn shows lexical replacement. 13  
21 to think *manatu PPn shows lexical replacement 7  
14 belly *manawa 'belly, stomach', check Geraghty 1984, who posits PCP *manawa 9  
156 thin word info *manifinifi (as cloth) 1  
161 shy, ashamed *maqaa ashamed (?) 1  
129 moon *marama 'moon, moonlight' 7  
160 painful, sick *masaki (b) sick 1  
125 salt *masima   3  
45 eye *mata   1  
82 dull, blunt *mata putu   1  
22 to fear *mataku   1  
136 wind *mataŋi   1, 66  
75 to die, be dead *mate   1  
157 thick word info *matolutolu   3  
140 dry word info *matuqu   66  
2 left *maui *maui Outlier isogloss 1, 59  
47 to yawn *mawawa   19  
42 to suck *miti   8  
50 to dream *miti   36  
48 to sleep *mohe PCP shows a replacement innovation, reflected by Fijian moce, mose, Rotuman mose, PPn *mohe. PCP *mo(c,s)e has probable antecedents in POc but shows semantic shift. 10, 109  
50 to dream *mohe-miti   7, 36  
104 fat/grease *momona 'rich fatty flesh, 1, 65  
118 grass *mouku   58  
118 grass *mutia grass (generic) 13  
118 grass *mutie grass (generic) 13  
109 mosquito *namu   1  
31 tooth *nifo   1  
51 to sit *nofo   16  
72 to hit word info *paki (b) to slap 6  
82 dull, blunt *paku   61  
112 rotten word info *pala 'rotten, as overripe fruit or tubers' 13  
194 how? word info *pe(he)fea PPn shows lexical replacement. 11  
82 dull, blunt *pengu   12  
82 dull, blunt *penu   12  
167 night *poo   1  
154 short word info *pukupuku   3  
137 to blow word info *pupusi (with the breath) (no to) 6  
110 spider *puŋa-lewelewe   1, 57  
145 smoke word info *qahu   2  
145 smoke word info *qahu-afi   2  
32 tongue *qalelo Lexical replacement in PPn 15  
5 to walk *qalu (c) 1. 'go' 2. 'follow' 34  
36 to spit *qanu   14, 84, 121  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14, 84  
131 cloud word info *qao Probable lexical replacement in PCP/PPn. 12  
58 wife *qasawana 'wife' 1  
17 liver *qate   1  
195 no, not *qikai   10, 83  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *qiloa   13  
152 small *qiti   1  
121 sand *qone   1  
133 rain *quha (noun) 1  
135 lightning *quhila   2  
147 black *quli(-quli) PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
24 head *qulu   1  
83 to work word info *quma   1  
193 if *rano      
168 day *raqani   6  
146 ash *refu (-refu) (ashes) 67  
150 yellow *reŋareŋa,*felo(-felo) 'yellow' (also 'turmeric'),'yellowish, reddish yellow' 10, 11  
5 to walk *roo (d) 'go (pl. subject)' (suppletive plural of fano 'go, sing. sub.)    
44 to hear *roŋo   1  
198 Two word info *rua   1  
39 to cook word info *saka   2  
3 right *sako 'straight, erect' x  
123 to flow *sali as a stream'flow (?in a small stream), trickle' 24  
165 bad, evil *saqa ?'bad, of improper conduct, unseemly, forbidden' 1  
5 to walk *saqele (b) 'walk, go' 6  
2 left *sema *sema has reflexes in EPn as well as Tongic and NPn. 11  
68 needle *sika 'net needle' 9  
67 to sew word info *suki PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning 'to sew' 17  
71 to stab, pierce *suki (or stick) 'pierce' 1, 8  
79 stick/wood *suki 'pierce'to stab (or stick, no one to one match)    
42 to suck *susu (b) 'suck the breast' 25  
18 breast *susu or *huhu also milk 1  
141 wet *suu (Vst) 'watery, wet' 11  
74 to kill *ta-mate-   2  
190 other *taha      
197 One word info *taha   41  
49 to lie down word info *takoto   7  
64 to say *tala (to speak) tell, relate, (n.) talk, message' 60  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
56 child *tama 'child, son' PPn *tamaqiti, poss. singular, 6  
60 father *tamana   1  
54 man/male *taqane PPn shows irregular loss of PCP ŋw. 1, 11  
169 year *taqu   1  
179 near *tata   9  
92 to open, uncover *tatala (a door, container) 10  
196 to count *tau   8  
65 rope *taula PMic *tali 'rope',Pn: Niu toua 'rope', EFu, Nuk taula, Ren tauga, PCEPn *taura 'rope', (b) 9  
53 person/human being *taŋata   1, 66, 97  
148 white *tea   8  
59 mother *tinana   1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
95 to fall word info *too 'to fall, drop' 14  
84 to plant *too PPn shows lexical replacement. 4  
23 blood *toto PPn shows lexical replacement. POc *toto 'sap of plants' is reconstructable 4  
67 to sew word info *tui   13, 16  
67 to sew word info *tuitui PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning 'to sew' 13, 16  
72 to hit word info *tuki (a) to pound 8  
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
69 to hunt word info *tuli-manu   8  
86 to grow word info *tupu   1  
13 back word info *tuqa   11  
52 to stand *tuqu   2  
25 neck *ua   18  
19 shoulder *uma PPn shows lexical replacement 10  
41 to bite *uqu-ti Pn: Ton, Niu, Sam, EFu, EUv, Tik, Pil, Ren    
77 to scratch word info *waku sure? not *laku?-MW 9  
127 woods/forest *wao 'bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited' 14  
4 leg/foot *waqe   1, 100  
124 sea *wasa If not a diffusion in Fiji-W. Polynesia area. (open) sea 12  
144 to burn word info *wela-tia ‘burnt’ be alight 63  
170 when? word info *ŋaiSa   1  
106 snake *ŋata   12  
81 sharp *ŋata 'sharp'(as knife) 36  
30 mouth *ŋutu 'mouth, beak' 2  
151 green ? * mata Possibly no primary colour term 'green' in POc. 1  
7 to come ? fano mai PPn shows a possible replacement innovation. 1, 23  
82 dull, blunt ?*putu For PMP Blust (1993) gives both *dumpul and *pudul. From the latter he derives POc *(b,p)urul. From the former one would expect POc *ru(b,p)ul. There is no standout candidate for PPn or PCP. Geraghty 1983 proposes PEOc *pusuki. 1  
162 old word info tuai (1) 'old, of times, (2) late 48  

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