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Language: Proto-Polynesian

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  From: PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS. Unpublished list, dated 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
16 intestines      
29 to sniff, smell      
34 to cry      
57 husband      
62 thatch/roof      
70 to shoot word info      
76 to live, be alive      
89 to hold word info      
96 dog      
98 egg      
166 correct, true      
173 at      
186 you      
192 and      
202 Six word info      
203 Seven word info      
204 Eight word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
5 to walk *roo (d) 'go (pl. subject)' (suppletive plural of fano 'go, sing. sub.)    
41 to bite *uqu-ti Pn: Ton, Niu, Sam, EFu, EUv, Tik, Pil, Ren    
78 to cut, hack word info *kai(h,s)aqa      
79 stick/wood *suki 'pierce'to stab (or stick, no one to one match)    
94 to throw word info *liaki 'cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)'    
122 water word info *faka-ranu *(v.) 'to wash s.t. in fresh water'    
159 wide *faa-lasi wide    
178 that *era (distant)    
190 other *taha      
193 if *rano      
6 road/path *hala   1  
11 dust *efu   1  
12 skin *kili   1  
17 liver *qate   1  
18 breast *susu or *huhu also milk 1  
22 to fear *mataku   1  
24 head *qulu   1  
27 nose *isu   1  
28 to breathe *maanawa   1  
31 tooth *nifo   1  
38 to chew word info *mama   1  
40 to drink *inu   1  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
44 to hear *roŋo   1  
45 eye *mata   1  
46 to see *kite   1  
58 wife *qasawana 'wife' 1  
59 mother *tinana   1  
60 father *tamana   1  
75 to die, be dead *mate   1  
80 to split word info *ma-fola (e) be split open 1  
80 to split word info *fola (e) be split open 1  
82 dull, blunt *mata putu   1  
82 dull, blunt ?*putu For PMP Blust (1993) gives both *dumpul and *pudul. From the latter he derives POc *(b,p)urul. From the former one would expect POc *ru(b,p)ul. There is no standout candidate for PPn or PCP. Geraghty 1983 proposes PEOc *pusuki. 1  
83 to work word info *quma   1  
85 to choose *fili   1  
86 to grow word info *tupu   1  
90 to dig *keli   1  
97 bird *manu (+ *lele 'to fly') 1  
99 feather *fulu-fulu   1  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
109 mosquito *namu   1  
111 fish *ika   1  
113 branch word info *laqa(-laqa) 'small branch(es)' 1  
114 leaf *lau (qi raqakau)   1  
117 fruit *fua (qi ra?akau) 1  
121 sand *qone   1  
128 sky *laŋi   1  
130 star *fetuqu   1  
133 rain *quha (noun) 1  
143 fire *afi   1  
151 green ? * mata Possibly no primary colour term 'green' in POc. 1  
152 small *qiti   1  
156 thin word info *manifinifi (as cloth) 1  
160 painful, sick *masaki (b) sick 1  
161 shy, ashamed *maqaa ashamed (?) 1  
161 shy, ashamed *maa ashamed 1  
163 new *foqou   1  
165 bad, evil *saqa ?'bad, of improper conduct, unseemly, forbidden' 1  
167 night *poo   1  
169 year *taqu   1  
170 when? word info *ŋaiSa   1  
171 to hide word info *funi PT: Motu huni-a 'to hide' 1  
177 this *eni   1  
183 thou *koe   1  
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
188 what? word info *hafa   1  
188 what? word info *haa   1  
189 who? word info *hai   1  
198 Two word info *rua   1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
4 leg/foot *waqe   1, 100  
187 they *kila-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu 'paucal') 1, 19  
132 fog *kofu   1, 47  
1 hand *lima   1, 64  
138 warm word info *mafana   1, 72  
138 warm word info *mafana-fana   1, 72  
187 they *la-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu 'paucal') 1, 72  
71 to stab, pierce *suki (or stick) 'pierce' 1, 8  
55 woman/female *fafine   1, 106  
54 man/male *taqane PPn shows irregular loss of PCP ŋw. 1, 11  
182 I *au (indep.) 1, 21  
7 to come ? fano mai PPn shows a possible replacement innovation. 1, 23  
37 to eat *kai   1, 47  
139 cold word info *makalili   1, 52  
110 spider *puŋa-lewelewe   1, 57  
2 left *maui *maui Outlier isogloss 1, 59  
100 wing *kapakau   1, 59  
104 fat/grease *momona 'rich fatty flesh, 1, 65  
136 wind *mataŋi   1, 66  
200 Four word info *faa   1, 66  
53 person/human being *taŋata   1, 66, 97  
10 dirty *kelekele This is reconstructed for 'black' or 'dark', not for 'dirty' -MW 10  
19 shoulder *uma PPn shows lexical replacement 10  
92 to open, uncover *tatala (a door, container) 10  
119 earth/soil *kele   10  
160 painful, sick *mamahi (a) painful 10  
48 to sleep *mohe PCP shows a replacement innovation, reflected by Fijian moce, mose, Rotuman mose, PPn *mohe. PCP *mo(c,s)e has probable antecedents in POc but shows semantic shift. 10, 109  
150 yellow *reŋareŋa,*felo(-felo) 'yellow' (also 'turmeric'),'yellowish, reddish yellow' 10, 11  
195 no, not *qikai   10, 83  
2 left *sema *sema has reflexes in EPn as well as Tongic and NPn. 11  
13 back word info *tuqa   11  
66 to tie up, fasten *faqu-si   11  
101 to fly *lele PPn loses POc form. 11  
141 wet *suu (Vst) 'watery, wet' 11  
194 how? word info *pe(he)fea PPn shows lexical replacement. 11  
82 dull, blunt *pengu   12  
82 dull, blunt *penu   12  
106 snake *ŋata   12  
124 sea *wasa If not a diffusion in Fiji-W. Polynesia area. (open) sea 12  
131 cloud word info *qao Probable lexical replacement in PCP/PPn. 12  
153 big *lasi PPn show a replacement innovation. 12  
155 long word info *loa   12, 105  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *qiloa   13  
102 rat *kumaa   13  
105 tail *hiku (of fish) 13  
112 rotten word info *pala 'rotten, as overripe fruit or tubers' 13  
118 grass *mutia grass (generic) 13  
118 grass *mutie grass (generic) 13  
149 red *kula   13  
180 far *mamaqo PPn shows lexical replacement. 13  
191 all *katoa PPn shows a lexical replacement 13  
67 to sew word info *tuitui PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning 'to sew' 13, 16  
67 to sew word info *tui   13, 16  
61 house *fale PPn shows lexical replacement 14  
88 to squeeze word info *kumi (a)'massage' 14  
95 to fall word info *too 'to fall, drop' 14  
103 meat/flesh *kanofi 'flesh of animal or coconut, kernel or hard core' 14  
127 woods/forest *wao 'bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited' 14  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14, 84  
36 to spit *qanu   14, 84, 121  
8 to turn word info *fuli Possible replacement in PPn 15  
32 tongue *qalelo Lexical replacement in PPn 15  
51 to sit *nofo   16  
164 good *malie 'nice, pleasant' 16  
67 to sew word info *suki PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning 'to sew' 17  
25 neck *ua   18  
47 to yawn *mawawa   19  
5 to walk *fano (a) 'go, move' 2  
30 mouth *ŋutu 'mouth, beak' 2  
39 to cook word info *saka   2  
52 to stand *tuqu   2  
74 to kill *faka-mate   2  
74 to kill *ta-mate-   2  
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
115 root *aka   2  
135 lightning *quhila   2  
145 smoke word info *qahu   2  
145 smoke word info *qahu-afi   2  
185 we word info *kima-tou (excl pl) 2, 39  
123 to flow *sali as a stream'flow (?in a small stream), trickle' 24  
42 to suck *susu (b) 'suck the breast' 25  
125 salt *masima   3  
154 short word info *pukupuku   3  
157 thick word info *matolutolu   3  
181 where? word info *fea   3, 35  
172 to climb word info *kake PPn shows lexical replacement 32  
5 to walk *qalu (c) 1. 'go' 2. 'follow' 34  
50 to dream *miti   36  
81 sharp *ŋata 'sharp'(as knife) 36  
134 thunder *mana 'thunder, supernatural force' 37  
23 blood *toto PPn shows lexical replacement. POc *toto 'sap of plants' is reconstructable 4  
80 to split word info *fasi (a) split s.t., cleave s.t. 4  
84 to plant *too PPn shows lexical replacement. 4  
120 stone *maka   4  
26 hair word info *lau-qulu <   40  
197 One word info *taha   41  
142 heavy *ma-mafa (b)PEPn *taumafa, *taimafa 46  
162 old word info tuai (1) 'old, of times, (2) late 48  
9 to swim *kaukau is this really reduplicated? not *kau 5  
80 to split word info *faa (c) burst, split open 5  
174 in, inside *(i) loto PPn shows replacement. PPn has *lalo 'under, below' with semantic shift.(hand) 5  
80 to split word info *ma-faa (d) burst, split open 5, 72  
15 bone *hui   52  
118 grass *mouku   58  
5 to walk *saqele (b) 'walk, go' 6  
56 child *tama 'child, son' PPn *tamaqiti, poss. singular, 6  
63 name *hiŋoa PPn shows lexical replacement 6  
72 to hit word info *paki (b) to slap 6  
126 lake *loto   6  
137 to blow word info *pupusi (with the breath) (no to) 6  
168 day *raqani   6  
64 to say *tala (to speak) tell, relate, (n.) talk, message' 60  
82 dull, blunt *paku   61  
144 to burn word info *wela-tia ‘burnt’ be alight 63  
140 dry word info *matuqu   66  
146 ash *refu (-refu) (ashes) 67  
21 to think *manatu PPn shows lexical replacement 7  
33 to laugh *kata PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
49 to lie down word info *takoto   7  
73 to steal *kai(h,s)aqa   7  
80 to split word info *isi (b) split, cut lengthwise, tear off in long strips 7  
87 to swell word info *fufula   7  
129 moon *marama 'moon, moonlight' 7  
147 black *quli(-quli) PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
50 to dream *mohe-miti   7, 36  
116 flower *fuŋa   72  
159 wide *lau-efa wide 73, 48  
159 wide *lau-lasi wide 73, 9  
94 to throw word info *lii 'cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)' 79  
35 to vomit *lua   8  
42 to suck *miti   8  
69 to hunt word info *tuli-manu   8  
72 to hit word info *tuki (a) to pound 8  
148 white *tea   8  
176 below *lalo PPn shows a replacement innovation. Probably a semantic shift, as suggested by PMic *lalo 'deep' 8  
196 to count *tau   8  
88 to squeeze word info *foo (b) 'squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing' 8, 2  
88 to squeeze word info *fofoo (b) 'squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing' 8, 2  
35 to vomit *lua-qi   8, 31  
158 narrow *faa-riki 'narrow' 84  
14 belly *manawa 'belly, stomach', check Geraghty 1984, who posits PCP *manawa 9  
65 rope *taula PMic *tali 'rope',Pn: Niu toua 'rope', EFu, Nuk taula, Ren tauga, PCEPn *taura 'rope', (b) 9  
68 needle *sika 'net needle' 9  
77 to scratch word info *waku sure? not *laku?-MW 9  
91 to buy *fakatau mai PPn shows lexical replacement 9  
107 worm (earthworm) *kelemutu   9  
175 above *i luŋa PPn shows lexical replacement. 9  
179 near *tata   9  
3 right *sako 'straight, erect' x  

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