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Language: Proto-Polynesian

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  From: PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS. Unpublished list, dated 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
16 intestines      
29 to sniff, smell      
34 to cry      
57 husband      
62 thatch/roof      
70 to shoot word info      
76 to live, be alive      
89 to hold word info      
96 dog      
98 egg      
166 correct, true      
173 at      
186 you      
192 and      
202 Six word info      
203 Seven word info      
204 Eight word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
1 hand *lima   1, 64  
4 leg/foot *waqe   1, 100  
6 road/path *hala   1  
11 dust *efu   1  
12 skin *kili   1  
13 back word info *tuqa   11  
15 bone *hui   52  
17 liver *qate   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *qiloa   13  
22 to fear *mataku   1  
24 head *qulu   1  
25 neck *ua   18  
26 hair word info *lau-qulu <   40  
27 nose *isu   1  
28 to breathe *maanawa   1  
31 tooth *nifo   1  
35 to vomit *lua   8  
35 to vomit *lua-qi   8, 31  
36 to spit *qanu   14, 84, 121  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14, 84  
37 to eat *kai   1, 47  
38 to chew word info *mama   1  
39 to cook word info *saka   2  
40 to drink *inu   1  
42 to suck *miti   8  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
44 to hear *roŋo   1  
45 eye *mata   1  
46 to see *kite   1  
47 to yawn *mawawa   19  
49 to lie down word info *takoto   7  
50 to dream *miti   36  
50 to dream *mohe-miti   7, 36  
51 to sit *nofo   16  
52 to stand *tuqu   2  
53 person/human being *taŋata   1, 66, 97  
55 woman/female *fafine   1, 106  
59 mother *tinana   1  
60 father *tamana   1  
66 to tie up, fasten *faqu-si   11  
67 to sew word info *tui   13, 16  
69 to hunt word info *tuli-manu   8  
73 to steal *kai(h,s)aqa   7  
74 to kill *faka-mate   2  
74 to kill *ta-mate-   2  
75 to die, be dead *mate   1  
78 to cut, hack word info *kai(h,s)aqa      
82 dull, blunt *mata putu   1  
82 dull, blunt *paku   61  
82 dull, blunt *pengu   12  
82 dull, blunt *penu   12  
83 to work word info *quma   1  
85 to choose *fili   1  
86 to grow word info *tupu   1  
87 to swell word info *fufula   7  
90 to dig *keli   1  
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
99 feather *fulu-fulu   1  
100 wing *kapakau   1, 59  
102 rat *kumaa   13  
106 snake *ŋata   12  
107 worm (earthworm) *kelemutu   9  
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
109 mosquito *namu   1  
110 spider *puŋa-lewelewe   1, 57  
111 fish *ika   1  
114 leaf *lau (qi raqakau)   1  
115 root *aka   2  
116 flower *fuŋa   72  
118 grass *mouku   58  
119 earth/soil *kele   10  
120 stone *maka   4  
121 sand *qone   1  
125 salt *masima   3  
126 lake *loto   6  
128 sky *laŋi   1  
130 star *fetuqu   1  
132 fog *kofu   1, 47  
135 lightning *quhila   2  
136 wind *mataŋi   1, 66  
138 warm word info *mafana   1, 72  
138 warm word info *mafana-fana   1, 72  
139 cold word info *makalili   1, 52  
140 dry word info *matuqu   66  
143 fire *afi   1  
145 smoke word info *qahu   2  
145 smoke word info *qahu-afi   2  
148 white *tea   8  
149 red *kula   13  
152 small *qiti   1  
154 short word info *pukupuku   3  
155 long word info *loa   12, 105  
157 thick word info *matolutolu   3  
163 new *foqou   1  
167 night *poo   1  
168 day *raqani   6  
169 year *taqu   1  
170 when? word info *ŋaiSa   1  
177 this *eni   1  
179 near *tata   9  
181 where? word info *fea   3, 35  
183 thou *koe   1  
188 what? word info *hafa   1  
188 what? word info *haa   1  
189 who? word info *hai   1  
190 other *taha      
193 if *rano      
195 no, not *qikai   10, 83  
196 to count *tau   8  
197 One word info *taha   41  
198 Two word info *rua   1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
200 Four word info *faa   1, 66  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
30 mouth *ŋutu 'mouth, beak' 2  
134 thunder *mana 'thunder, supernatural force' 37  
150 yellow *reŋareŋa,*felo(-felo) 'yellow' (also 'turmeric'),'yellowish, reddish yellow' 10, 11  
142 heavy *ma-mafa (b)PEPn *taumafa, *taimafa 46  
117 fruit *fua (qi ra?akau) 1  
141 wet *suu (Vst) 'watery, wet' 11  
122 water word info *faka-ranu *(v.) 'to wash s.t. in fresh water'    
18 breast *susu or *huhu also milk 1  
124 sea *wasa If not a diffusion in Fiji-W. Polynesia area. (open) sea 12  
14 belly *manawa 'belly, stomach', check Geraghty 1984, who posits PCP *manawa 9  
127 woods/forest *wao 'bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited' 14  
94 to throw word info *lii 'cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)' 79  
94 to throw word info *liaki 'cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)'    
56 child *tama 'child, son' PPn *tamaqiti, poss. singular, 6  
103 meat/flesh *kanofi 'flesh of animal or coconut, kernel or hard core' 14  
129 moon *marama 'moon, moonlight' 7  
158 narrow *faa-riki 'narrow' 84  
68 needle *sika 'net needle' 9  
164 good *malie 'nice, pleasant' 16  
79 stick/wood *suki 'pierce'to stab (or stick, no one to one match)    
104 fat/grease *momona 'rich fatty flesh, 1, 65  
112 rotten word info *pala 'rotten, as overripe fruit or tubers' 13  
81 sharp *ŋata 'sharp'(as knife) 36  
113 branch word info *laqa(-laqa) 'small branch(es)' 1  
3 right *sako 'straight, erect' x  
95 to fall word info *too 'to fall, drop' 14  
58 wife *qasawana 'wife' 1  
97 bird *manu (+ *lele 'to fly') 1  
146 ash *refu (-refu) (ashes) 67  
162 old word info tuai (1) 'old, of times, (2) late 48  
92 to open, uncover *tatala (a door, container) 10  
5 to walk *fano (a) 'go, move' 2  
160 painful, sick *mamahi (a) painful 10  
80 to split word info *fasi (a) split s.t., cleave s.t. 4  
72 to hit word info *tuki (a) to pound 8  
88 to squeeze word info *kumi (a)'massage' 14  
156 thin word info *manifinifi (as cloth) 1  
42 to suck *susu (b) 'suck the breast' 25  
88 to squeeze word info *foo (b) 'squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing' 8, 2  
88 to squeeze word info *fofoo (b) 'squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing' 8, 2  
5 to walk *saqele (b) 'walk, go' 6  
160 painful, sick *masaki (b) sick 1  
80 to split word info *isi (b) split, cut lengthwise, tear off in long strips 7  
72 to hit word info *paki (b) to slap 6  
5 to walk *qalu (c) 1. 'go' 2. 'follow' 34  
80 to split word info *faa (c) burst, split open 5  
5 to walk *roo (d) 'go (pl. subject)' (suppletive plural of fano 'go, sing. sub.)    
80 to split word info *ma-faa (d) burst, split open 5, 72  
178 that *era (distant)    
80 to split word info *ma-fola (e) be split open 1  
80 to split word info *fola (e) be split open 1  
185 we word info *kima-tou (excl pl) 2, 39  
182 I *au (indep.) 1, 21  
133 rain *quha (noun) 1  
105 tail *hiku (of fish) 13  
71 to stab, pierce *suki (or stick) 'pierce' 1, 8  
64 to say *tala (to speak) tell, relate, (n.) talk, message' 60  
187 they *kila-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu 'paucal') 1, 19  
187 they *la-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu 'paucal') 1, 72  
137 to blow word info *pupusi (with the breath) (no to) 6  
2 left *maui *maui Outlier isogloss 1, 59  
2 left *sema *sema has reflexes in EPn as well as Tongic and NPn. 11  
165 bad, evil *saqa ?'bad, of improper conduct, unseemly, forbidden' 1  
123 to flow *sali as a stream'flow (?in a small stream), trickle' 24  
161 shy, ashamed *maa ashamed 1  
161 shy, ashamed *maqaa ashamed (?) 1  
144 to burn word info *wela-tia ‘burnt’ be alight 63  
82 dull, blunt ?*putu For PMP Blust (1993) gives both *dumpul and *pudul. From the latter he derives POc *(b,p)urul. From the former one would expect POc *ru(b,p)ul. There is no standout candidate for PPn or PCP. Geraghty 1983 proposes PEOc *pusuki. 1  
118 grass *mutia grass (generic) 13  
118 grass *mutie grass (generic) 13  
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
9 to swim *kaukau is this really reduplicated? not *kau 5  
32 tongue *qalelo Lexical replacement in PPn 15  
48 to sleep *mohe PCP shows a replacement innovation, reflected by Fijian moce, mose, Rotuman mose, PPn *mohe. PCP *mo(c,s)e has probable antecedents in POc but shows semantic shift. 10, 109  
65 rope *taula PMic *tali 'rope',Pn: Niu toua 'rope', EFu, Nuk taula, Ren tauga, PCEPn *taura 'rope', (b) 9  
41 to bite *uqu-ti Pn: Ton, Niu, Sam, EFu, EUv, Tik, Pil, Ren    
8 to turn word info *fuli Possible replacement in PPn 15  
151 green ? * mata Possibly no primary colour term 'green' in POc. 1  
67 to sew word info *tuitui PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning 'to sew' 13, 16  
67 to sew word info *suki PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning 'to sew' 17  
101 to fly *lele PPn loses POc form. 11  
153 big *lasi PPn show a replacement innovation. 12  
191 all *katoa PPn shows a lexical replacement 13  
7 to come ? fano mai PPn shows a possible replacement innovation. 1, 23  
33 to laugh *kata PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
147 black *quli(-quli) PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
176 below *lalo PPn shows a replacement innovation. Probably a semantic shift, as suggested by PMic *lalo 'deep' 8  
54 man/male *taqane PPn shows irregular loss of PCP ŋw. 1, 11  
19 shoulder *uma PPn shows lexical replacement 10  
21 to think *manatu PPn shows lexical replacement 7  
61 house *fale PPn shows lexical replacement 14  
63 name *hiŋoa PPn shows lexical replacement 6  
91 to buy *fakatau mai PPn shows lexical replacement 9  
172 to climb word info *kake PPn shows lexical replacement 32  
84 to plant *too PPn shows lexical replacement. 4  
175 above *i luŋa PPn shows lexical replacement. 9  
180 far *mamaqo PPn shows lexical replacement. 13  
194 how? word info *pe(he)fea PPn shows lexical replacement. 11  
23 blood *toto PPn shows lexical replacement. POc *toto 'sap of plants' is reconstructable 4  
174 in, inside *(i) loto PPn shows replacement. PPn has *lalo 'under, below' with semantic shift.(hand) 5  
131 cloud word info *qao Probable lexical replacement in PCP/PPn. 12  
171 to hide word info *funi PT: Motu huni-a 'to hide' 1  
77 to scratch word info *waku sure? not *laku?-MW 9  
10 dirty *kelekele This is reconstructed for 'black' or 'dark', not for 'dirty' -MW 10  
159 wide *faa-lasi wide    
159 wide *lau-lasi wide 73, 9  
159 wide *lau-efa wide 73, 48  

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