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Language: Besemah

Source/Author:  Sindi Idwin 
Notes:  This language is spoken largely in the highland of Besemah of South Sumatera Indonesia - particularly those who live in around Mount Dempo. Appreciate any corrections
SKT = 'Sanskrit', which stands for all North Indian influence between Sanskrit and Middle-Indian 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Sindi Idwin  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Malayo-Chamic:Malayic:Malay 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
175 above di pucuk      
191 all semua   33 L
192 and dan   18  
146 ash abu   1  
173 at di   20  
13 back word info belakang   27  
165 bad, evil karuk      
14 belly peghut   32  
176 below bawah   1  
153 big besak SA: -k is irregular 28, 128  
97 bird burung   17  
147 black itam   1  
23 blood dagha   1  
15 bone tulang   1  
113 branch word info cabang   9  
18 breast dade = chest 12  
18 breast susu = female breast 1  
56 child anak   1  
131 cloud word info mendung      
139 cold word info dingin   1  
166 correct, true betul   23  
168 day siang ?suspect (usually refers to early afternoon)    
168 day aghi list originally had siang but that word usually refers to 'early afternoon, clearest part of the day' 17  
10 dirty kulat   60  
96 dog anjing   27  
140 dry word info keghing   22  
82 dull, blunt tumpul   3  
11 dust debu   58  
43 ear cuping   15, 51  
119 earth/soil tanah   1  
98 egg teluw   1  
204 Eight word info lapan   4  
45 eye mate   1  
180 far jauh   1  
104 fat/grease bunguk      
60 father bapang < *b(a)- +*apa + *N; *apa = Dravidian 5 L
99 feather bulu   1  
208 Fifty word info lime puluh   1, 2  
143 fire api   1  
111 fish ikan   1  
201 Five word info lime   1  
116 flower bunge   1  
132 fog kabut   1  
200 Four word info empat   1  
117 fruit buah   1  
164 good ilok   68  
118 grass ghumput   27  
151 green ijau   25  
26 hair word info gumbak      
1 hand tangan   18  
184 he/she die   18  
24 head palak < SKT 29 L
142 heavy beghat   1  
61 house ghumah   1  
194 how? word info lukmane   23  
57 husband laki   28  
182 I aku   1  
193 if kalu < SKT jaka + AR law 14 L
174 in, inside di dalam   1  
16 intestines usus   24  
126 lake danau   1  
114 leaf daun   1  
2 left kidau   56, 28  
4 leg/foot keting   92  
135 lightning kilat   1  
17 liver ati   1  
155 long word info panjang   24  
108 louse word info kutu   1  
54 man/male lanang < JV 124 L
103 meat/flesh daging   26  
129 moon bulan   1  
109 mosquito nyamuk   1  
59 mother umak   35  
30 mouth mulut   27  
63 name name < SKT 12 L
158 narrow sempit   68  
179 near damping   25  
25 neck liagh   1  
68 needle jaghum   1  
163 new empai   17  
167 night malam   20  
205 Nine word info sembilan   10  
195 no, not bukan   26  
27 nose idung   1  
162 old word info tue   1  
197 One word info sikuk < *sa- *ikuʔ 'one tail' 1, 85  
209 One Hundred word info seratus   4  
210 One Thousand word info seribu   5  
190 other ne lain   2  
160 painful, sick sakit   1  
53 person/human being jeme ult. < Sanskrit 16 L
133 rain ujan   1  
102 rat tikus   22  
149 red abang < JV 33 L
3 right kanan   1, 73  
6 road/path jalan   1  
115 root akagh   2  
65 rope tali   1  
112 rotten word info bangai      
125 salt garam   18  
121 sand pasir   18  
124 sea laut   6  
203 Seven word info tujuh   4  
81 sharp landap   34  
154 short word info pandak   1  
19 shoulder bahu < SKT 17 L
161 shy, ashamed malu   20  
202 Six word info enam   1  
12 skin kulit   1  
128 sky langit   1  
152 small kecik   28  
145 smoke word info asap   49  
106 snake ulagh   2  
110 spider labalaba   1  
130 star bintang   1  
79 stick/wood kayu   1  
120 stone batu   1  
105 tail ikok   1, 72  
206 Ten word info sepuluh   5  
178 that itu   16  
62 thatch/roof atap   1  
187 they rombongan lit. 'group of people' (SA)    
157 thick word info tebal   26  
156 thin word info nipis   1, 44  
177 this ini   1  
183 thou      
199 Three word info tige   8  
134 thunder ribut ? means 'stormy' in other Malay dialects; there is also gurue(h) (Helfrich 1904) 102  
41 to bite gigit   21  
137 to blow word info embus   30  
28 to breathe benapas < AR 29 L
144 to burn word info nyilap   22, 14  
91 to buy beli   1  
38 to chew word info mepak SA: kunyah (16) and mamah (1) are also in Besemah (cf. Helfrich 1904) 66  
85 to choose milih   1  
172 to climb word info naik   1  
7 to come datang   14  
39 to cook word info bemasak   19  
196 to count ngitung   31  
34 to cry nangis   1  
78 to cut, hack word info netak   3  
75 to die, be dead mati   1  
90 to dig kali   1  
50 to dream bemimpi   1, 37  
40 to drink minum   1  
37 to eat makan   1  
95 to fall word info umban      
22 to fear takut   1  
123 to flow ngalir   1  
101 to fly terbang   18  
86 to grow word info besak      
44 to hear ndengagh   1  
171 to hide word info besimbun      
72 to hit word info gucuh      
89 to hold word info genggam   1  
69 to hunt word info beburu   23  
74 to kill mbunuh   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable ngerti < SKT 140 L
33 to laugh tetawe   1  
49 to lie down word info ngguling   54  
76 to live, be alive idup   1, 82  
92 to open, uncover buka   1  
84 to plant nanam   2  
93 to pound, beat word info nutuk   2  
64 to say ngicik   26  
77 to scratch word info gaghut   44  
46 to see nginak   131  
67 to sew word info njait   2  
70 to shoot word info nembak   49  
51 to sit duduk   35  
48 to sleep tiduk   1, 70  
29 to sniff, smell ngisap 'to suck in'? 121  
36 to spit tusuk   111  
80 to split word info mbagi (= "to divide'?) ult. < Sanskrit 93 L
88 to squeeze word info nciut      
71 to stab, pierce nujah   22  
52 to stand bediri   1  
73 to steal maling   16  
42 to suck ngisap   1  
87 to swell word info ngembang   20  
9 to swim bekayuh X (SA: lit. 'to row')    
9 to swim bədənaŋ < Helfrich 1904 23  
21 to think mikir < AR 22 L
94 to throw word info nukar ? questionable; there is also limpar (Helfrich 1904)    
66 to tie up, fasten ngencang      
8 to turn word info mbelok   24  
35 to vomit muntah   1  
5 to walk bejalan   21  
83 to work word info begawe < JV 23 L
47 to yawn nguap   19  
32 tongue lidah   4, 31  
31 tooth gigi   17  
207 Twenty word info due puluh   3, 6  
198 Two word info due   1  
138 warm word info angat   112  
122 water word info ayek   2  
185 we word info kami   2  
141 wet basah   1  
188 what? word info tape      
170 when? word info kebile   13  
181 where? word info dimane   20  
148 white putih   1  
189 who? word info sape   12  
159 wide libagh   48  
58 wife bini   5  
136 wind angin   1  
100 wing sayap   26  
55 woman/female betine   19  
127 woods/forest utan   7  
107 worm (earthworm) nggelang   15  
169 year taun   1  
150 yellow kuning   1  
186 you kaba ? < *(i)tu apa, cf. tuapo (Helfrich 1904) (SA)    

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