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Language: Besemah

Source/Author:  Sindi Idwin 
Notes:  This language is spoken largely in the highland of Besemah of South Sumatera Indonesia - particularly those who live in around Mount Dempo. Appreciate any corrections
SKT = 'Sanskrit', which stands for all North Indian influence between Sanskrit and Middle-Indian 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Sindi Idwin  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Malayo-Chamic:Malayic:Malay 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
183 thou      
1 hand tangan   18  
2 left kidau   56, 28  
3 right kanan   1, 73  
4 leg/foot keting   92  
5 to walk bejalan   21  
6 road/path jalan   1  
7 to come datang   14  
8 to turn word info mbelok   24  
9 to swim bekayuh X (SA: lit. 'to row')    
9 to swim bədənaŋ < Helfrich 1904 23  
10 dirty kulat   60  
11 dust debu   58  
12 skin kulit   1  
13 back word info belakang   27  
14 belly peghut   32  
15 bone tulang   1  
16 intestines usus   24  
17 liver ati   1  
18 breast dade = chest 12  
18 breast susu = female breast 1  
22 to fear takut   1  
23 blood dagha   1  
25 neck liagh   1  
26 hair word info gumbak      
27 nose idung   1  
29 to sniff, smell ngisap 'to suck in'? 121  
30 mouth mulut   27  
31 tooth gigi   17  
32 tongue lidah   4, 31  
33 to laugh tetawe   1  
34 to cry nangis   1  
35 to vomit muntah   1  
36 to spit tusuk   111  
37 to eat makan   1  
38 to chew word info mepak SA: kunyah (16) and mamah (1) are also in Besemah (cf. Helfrich 1904) 66  
39 to cook word info bemasak   19  
40 to drink minum   1  
41 to bite gigit   21  
42 to suck ngisap   1  
43 ear cuping   15, 51  
44 to hear ndengagh   1  
45 eye mate   1  
46 to see nginak   131  
47 to yawn nguap   19  
48 to sleep tiduk   1, 70  
49 to lie down word info ngguling   54  
50 to dream bemimpi   1, 37  
51 to sit duduk   35  
52 to stand bediri   1  
55 woman/female betine   19  
56 child anak   1  
57 husband laki   28  
58 wife bini   5  
59 mother umak   35  
61 house ghumah   1  
62 thatch/roof atap   1  
64 to say ngicik   26  
65 rope tali   1  
66 to tie up, fasten ngencang      
67 to sew word info njait   2  
68 needle jaghum   1  
69 to hunt word info beburu   23  
70 to shoot word info nembak   49  
71 to stab, pierce nujah   22  
72 to hit word info gucuh      
73 to steal maling   16  
74 to kill mbunuh   1  
75 to die, be dead mati   1  
76 to live, be alive idup   1, 82  
77 to scratch word info gaghut   44  
78 to cut, hack word info netak   3  
79 stick/wood kayu   1  
81 sharp landap   34  
82 dull, blunt tumpul   3  
84 to plant nanam   2  
85 to choose milih   1  
86 to grow word info besak      
87 to swell word info ngembang   20  
88 to squeeze word info nciut      
89 to hold word info genggam   1  
90 to dig kali   1  
91 to buy beli   1  
92 to open, uncover buka   1  
93 to pound, beat word info nutuk   2  
94 to throw word info nukar ? questionable; there is also limpar (Helfrich 1904)    
95 to fall word info umban      
96 dog anjing   27  
97 bird burung   17  
98 egg teluw   1  
99 feather bulu   1  
100 wing sayap   26  
101 to fly terbang   18  
102 rat tikus   22  
103 meat/flesh daging   26  
104 fat/grease bunguk      
105 tail ikok   1, 72  
106 snake ulagh   2  
107 worm (earthworm) nggelang   15  
108 louse word info kutu   1  
109 mosquito nyamuk   1  
110 spider labalaba   1  
111 fish ikan   1  
112 rotten word info bangai      
113 branch word info cabang   9  
114 leaf daun   1  
115 root akagh   2  
116 flower bunge   1  
117 fruit buah   1  
118 grass ghumput   27  
119 earth/soil tanah   1  
120 stone batu   1  
121 sand pasir   18  
122 water word info ayek   2  
123 to flow ngalir   1  
124 sea laut   6  
125 salt garam   18  
126 lake danau   1  
127 woods/forest utan   7  
128 sky langit   1  
129 moon bulan   1  
130 star bintang   1  
131 cloud word info mendung      
132 fog kabut   1  
133 rain ujan   1  
134 thunder ribut ? means 'stormy' in other Malay dialects; there is also gurue(h) (Helfrich 1904) 102  
135 lightning kilat   1  
136 wind angin   1  
137 to blow word info embus   30  
138 warm word info angat   112  
139 cold word info dingin   1  
140 dry word info keghing   22  
141 wet basah   1  
142 heavy beghat   1  
143 fire api   1  
144 to burn word info nyilap   22, 14  
145 smoke word info asap   49  
146 ash abu   1  
147 black itam   1  
148 white putih   1  
150 yellow kuning   1  
151 green ijau   25  
152 small kecik   28  
153 big besak SA: -k is irregular 28, 128  
154 short word info pandak   1  
155 long word info panjang   24  
156 thin word info nipis   1, 44  
157 thick word info tebal   26  
158 narrow sempit   68  
159 wide libagh   48  
160 painful, sick sakit   1  
161 shy, ashamed malu   20  
162 old word info tue   1  
163 new empai   17  
164 good ilok   68  
165 bad, evil karuk      
166 correct, true betul   23  
167 night malam   20  
168 day siang ?suspect (usually refers to early afternoon)    
168 day aghi list originally had siang but that word usually refers to 'early afternoon, clearest part of the day' 17  
169 year taun   1  
170 when? word info kebile   13  
171 to hide word info besimbun      
172 to climb word info naik   1  
173 at di   20  
174 in, inside di dalam   1  
175 above di pucuk      
176 below bawah   1  
177 this ini   1  
178 that itu   16  
179 near damping   25  
180 far jauh   1  
181 where? word info dimane   20  
182 I aku   1  
184 he/she die   18  
185 we word info kami   2  
186 you kaba ? < *(i)tu apa, cf. tuapo (Helfrich 1904) (SA)    
187 they rombongan lit. 'group of people' (SA)    
188 what? word info tape      
189 who? word info sape   12  
190 other ne lain   2  
192 and dan   18  
194 how? word info lukmane   23  
195 no, not bukan   26  
196 to count ngitung   31  
197 One word info sikuk < *sa- *ikuʔ 'one tail' 1, 85  
198 Two word info due   1  
199 Three word info tige   8  
200 Four word info empat   1  
201 Five word info lime   1  
202 Six word info enam   1  
203 Seven word info tujuh   4  
204 Eight word info lapan   4  
205 Nine word info sembilan   10  
206 Ten word info sepuluh   5  
207 Twenty word info due puluh   3, 6  
208 Fifty word info lime puluh   1, 2  
209 One Hundred word info seratus   4  
210 One Thousand word info seribu   5  
19 shoulder bahu < SKT 17 L
20 to know, be knowledgeable ngerti < SKT 140 L
21 to think mikir < AR 22 L
24 head palak < SKT 29 L
28 to breathe benapas < AR 29 L
53 person/human being jeme ult. < Sanskrit 16 L
54 man/male lanang < JV 124 L
60 father bapang < *b(a)- +*apa + *N; *apa = Dravidian 5 L
63 name name < SKT 12 L
80 to split word info mbagi (= "to divide'?) ult. < Sanskrit 93 L
83 to work word info begawe < JV 23 L
149 red abang < JV 33 L
191 all semua   33 L
193 if kalu < SKT jaka + AR law 14 L

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