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Language: Besemah

Source/Author:  Sindi Idwin 
Notes:  This language is spoken largely in the highland of Besemah of South Sumatera Indonesia - particularly those who live in around Mount Dempo. Appreciate any corrections
SKT = 'Sanskrit', which stands for all North Indian influence between Sanskrit and Middle-Indian 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Sindi Idwin  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Malayo-Chamic:Malayic:Malay 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
183 thou      
9 to swim bekayuh X (SA: lit. 'to row')    
26 hair word info gumbak      
66 to tie up, fasten ngencang      
72 to hit word info gucuh      
86 to grow word info besak      
88 to squeeze word info nciut      
94 to throw word info nukar ? questionable; there is also limpar (Helfrich 1904)    
95 to fall word info umban      
104 fat/grease bunguk      
112 rotten word info bangai      
131 cloud word info mendung      
165 bad, evil karuk      
168 day siang ?suspect (usually refers to early afternoon)    
171 to hide word info besimbun      
175 above di pucuk      
186 you kaba ? < *(i)tu apa, cf. tuapo (Helfrich 1904) (SA)    
187 they rombongan lit. 'group of people' (SA)    
188 what? word info tape      
6 road/path jalan   1  
12 skin kulit   1  
15 bone tulang   1  
17 liver ati   1  
18 breast susu = female breast 1  
22 to fear takut   1  
23 blood dagha   1  
25 neck liagh   1  
27 nose idung   1  
33 to laugh tetawe   1  
34 to cry nangis   1  
35 to vomit muntah   1  
37 to eat makan   1  
40 to drink minum   1  
42 to suck ngisap   1  
44 to hear ndengagh   1  
45 eye mate   1  
52 to stand bediri   1  
56 child anak   1  
61 house ghumah   1  
62 thatch/roof atap   1  
65 rope tali   1  
68 needle jaghum   1  
74 to kill mbunuh   1  
75 to die, be dead mati   1  
79 stick/wood kayu   1  
85 to choose milih   1  
89 to hold word info genggam   1  
90 to dig kali   1  
91 to buy beli   1  
92 to open, uncover buka   1  
98 egg teluw   1  
99 feather bulu   1  
108 louse word info kutu   1  
109 mosquito nyamuk   1  
110 spider labalaba   1  
111 fish ikan   1  
114 leaf daun   1  
116 flower bunge   1  
117 fruit buah   1  
119 earth/soil tanah   1  
120 stone batu   1  
123 to flow ngalir   1  
126 lake danau   1  
128 sky langit   1  
129 moon bulan   1  
130 star bintang   1  
132 fog kabut   1  
133 rain ujan   1  
135 lightning kilat   1  
136 wind angin   1  
139 cold word info dingin   1  
141 wet basah   1  
142 heavy beghat   1  
143 fire api   1  
146 ash abu   1  
147 black itam   1  
148 white putih   1  
150 yellow kuning   1  
154 short word info pandak   1  
160 painful, sick sakit   1  
162 old word info tue   1  
169 year taun   1  
172 to climb word info naik   1  
174 in, inside di dalam   1  
176 below bawah   1  
177 this ini   1  
180 far jauh   1  
182 I aku   1  
198 Two word info due   1  
200 Four word info empat   1  
201 Five word info lime   1  
202 Six word info enam   1  
208 Fifty word info lime puluh   1, 2  
50 to dream bemimpi   1, 37  
156 thin word info nipis   1, 44  
48 to sleep tiduk   1, 70  
105 tail ikok   1, 72  
3 right kanan   1, 73  
76 to live, be alive idup   1, 82  
197 One word info sikuk < *sa- *ikuʔ 'one tail' 1, 85  
205 Nine word info sembilan   10  
134 thunder ribut ? means 'stormy' in other Malay dialects; there is also gurue(h) (Helfrich 1904) 102  
36 to spit tusuk   111  
138 warm word info angat   112  
18 breast dade = chest 12  
63 name name < SKT 12 L
189 who? word info sape   12  
29 to sniff, smell ngisap 'to suck in'? 121  
54 man/male lanang < JV 124 L
170 when? word info kebile   13  
46 to see nginak   131  
7 to come datang   14  
193 if kalu < SKT jaka + AR law 14 L
20 to know, be knowledgeable ngerti < SKT 140 L
107 worm (earthworm) nggelang   15  
43 ear cuping   15, 51  
53 person/human being jeme ult. < Sanskrit 16 L
73 to steal maling   16  
178 that itu   16  
19 shoulder bahu < SKT 17 L
31 tooth gigi   17  
97 bird burung   17  
163 new empai   17  
168 day aghi list originally had siang but that word usually refers to 'early afternoon, clearest part of the day' 17  
1 hand tangan   18  
101 to fly terbang   18  
121 sand pasir   18  
125 salt garam   18  
184 he/she die   18  
192 and dan   18  
39 to cook word info bemasak   19  
47 to yawn nguap   19  
55 woman/female betine   19  
67 to sew word info njait   2  
84 to plant nanam   2  
93 to pound, beat word info nutuk   2  
106 snake ulagh   2  
115 root akagh   2  
122 water word info ayek   2  
185 we word info kami   2  
190 other ne lain   2  
87 to swell word info ngembang   20  
161 shy, ashamed malu   20  
167 night malam   20  
173 at di   20  
181 where? word info dimane   20  
5 to walk bejalan   21  
41 to bite gigit   21  
21 to think mikir < AR 22 L
71 to stab, pierce nujah   22  
102 rat tikus   22  
140 dry word info keghing   22  
144 to burn word info nyilap   22, 14  
9 to swim bədənaŋ < Helfrich 1904 23  
69 to hunt word info beburu   23  
83 to work word info begawe < JV 23 L
166 correct, true betul   23  
194 how? word info lukmane   23  
8 to turn word info mbelok   24  
16 intestines usus   24  
155 long word info panjang   24  
151 green ijau   25  
179 near damping   25  
64 to say ngicik   26  
100 wing sayap   26  
103 meat/flesh daging   26  
157 thick word info tebal   26  
195 no, not bukan   26  
13 back word info belakang   27  
30 mouth mulut   27  
96 dog anjing   27  
118 grass ghumput   27  
57 husband laki   28  
152 small kecik   28  
153 big besak SA: -k is irregular 28, 128  
24 head palak < SKT 29 L
28 to breathe benapas < AR 29 L
78 to cut, hack word info netak   3  
82 dull, blunt tumpul   3  
207 Twenty word info due puluh   3, 6  
137 to blow word info embus   30  
196 to count ngitung   31  
14 belly peghut   32  
149 red abang < JV 33 L
191 all semua   33 L
81 sharp landap   34  
51 to sit duduk   35  
59 mother umak   35  
203 Seven word info tujuh   4  
204 Eight word info lapan   4  
209 One Hundred word info seratus   4  
32 tongue lidah   4, 31  
77 to scratch word info gaghut   44  
159 wide libagh   48  
70 to shoot word info nembak   49  
145 smoke word info asap   49  
58 wife bini   5  
60 father bapang < *b(a)- +*apa + *N; *apa = Dravidian 5 L
206 Ten word info sepuluh   5  
210 One Thousand word info seribu   5  
49 to lie down word info ngguling   54  
2 left kidau   56, 28  
11 dust debu   58  
124 sea laut   6  
10 dirty kulat   60  
38 to chew word info mepak SA: kunyah (16) and mamah (1) are also in Besemah (cf. Helfrich 1904) 66  
158 narrow sempit   68  
164 good ilok   68  
127 woods/forest utan   7  
199 Three word info tige   8  
113 branch word info cabang   9  
4 leg/foot keting   92  
80 to split word info mbagi (= "to divide'?) ult. < Sanskrit 93 L

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