https://abvd.shh.mpg.de : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: S.W. Palawano

Source/Author:  Bill Davis 
Notes:  (Author is translator with New Tribes Mission, working among SWP since 1982)

I will use our orthography, since it is a simple sound system. We do not write the final glottal but I will use an apostrophe for that and for intervocalic glottal; voiceless stops are unaspirated; <ng> represents the velar nasal phoneme; <l> is high-tongued; <r> is flapped; stress is penultimate unless I say "final" in the author annotation column; there are 4 vowel phonemes (i: high front, a: low central; a slightly rounded mid vowel further back than a schwa but not quite "open o" of 'caught.' for which we use the letter <e>; and a high back rounded. We use both <o> and <u> in the orthography as a bridge to reading Tagalog... there is non-phonemic range of sound which corresponds somewhat to the rules of the orthography (last vowel of word: write as <o>, double is <oo>, otherwise, <u>. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Bill Davis  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Philippine:Greater Central Philippine:Palawanic 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
126 lake - they have no lakes; "Sea of Galilee" has been called dagat-dagatan" but this is contrived    
146 ash abo   1  
51 to sit adong   47  
182 I ako (final); free nominative; 1, 5  
60 father ama' (final) 1  
143 fire apoy   1  
29 to sniff, smell arek   1  
125 salt asin (final) 3  
17 liver atey   1  
7 to come ato' literally "here/come here"    
173 at atot "at (near)"    
193 if ba'   20  
30 mouth baba' mouth opening 1  
87 to swell word info baga'   1  
163 new bago   1, 54  
94 to throw word info bakal   97  
166 correct, true banar "true" (final) 1  
141 wet basa' (some say mebasa' but most call that a Tagalogism) 1  
120 stone bato   1  
97 bird begit      
80 to split word info bela' (split solid object)    
102 rat belab (final) …generic    
127 woods/forest bengley second growth    
61 house benwa      
14 belly berebewang (final) is lower abdomen    
64 to say beres      
14 belly beteng stomach (internal) and upper belly (outer) 49  
76 to live, be alive biag (final) 15  
31 tooth bigang molar    
46 to see biri'      
130 star bituen (final) no glottal in most subdialects 1  
16 intestines bituka large intestine 21  
192 and bo'      
117 fruit bua' (final) no glottal in most subdialects 1  
26 hair word info buek (final) (no glottal between in most subdialects) 1, 65  
129 moon bulan (final) 1  
99 feather bulbol (also = fur, body hair) 1, 68  
49 to lie down word info buntol      
116 flower burak-burak (final) 22  
123 to flow burbor      
112 rotten word info burok (final) 1, 102  
124 sea dagat (at the beach, the sea is "dagat") 25  
68 needle dagom   1  
6 road/path dalan (final) 1  
122 water word info danom   1  
95 to fall word info degdag   56  
144 to burn word info deket intransitive "to burn"    
86 to grow word info dekla'      
144 to burn word info dektan intransitive "to burn" (final)    
133 rain delek (final)    
114 leaf deon (final) no glottal in most subdialects 1  
136 wind deres (final) 82  
195 no, not diki if "I did NOT shoot the pig"    
32 tongue dila'   4  
187 they diye      
173 at doot "at (far)" 39  
198 Two word info dua (final) 1  
207 Twenty word info duang pulo' (final) 3, 6  
18 breast dudo'   15  
23 blood dugo' (final) 16  
134 thunder duldog (final) 2, 68  
95 to fall word info dumegdag (final, 2-place intransitive) 56  
86 to grow word info dumekla' (final)    
137 to blow word info dumres a. (final) 48  
19 shoulder ebaga   1  
27 nose edong   1  
121 sand egis      
100 wing elad (final) 23  
168 day eldew (final) 1  
91 to buy elen      
11 dust elikabok   1, 48  
1 hand elima (final) 1  
181 where? word info embe (final) 2, 70  
202 Six word info enem   1  
188 what? word info eno   2, 65  
194 how? word info enukuan (final); no glottal    
200 Four word info epat   1  
29 to sniff, smell erkan (final) 1  
57 husband esawa   2  
58 wife esawa   1  
57 husband esawa na' lelaki (to be specific) 2  
58 wife esawa na' libon (to be specific) 1  
173 at eset "at (general not too far)"    
115 root gamot   3  
127 woods/forest geba' virgin forest 104  
167 night gebi (final) 21, 90  
167 night gebii rare (final) 21, 90  
2 left gibang   24  
28 to breathe ginawa   1, 70  
191 all ginsan      
132 fog habong      
190 other iba "other, another," or "different" (final) 12  
36 to spit ibeg   47  
152 small ibon-ibon more generic 127  
96 dog ideng (final)    
48 to sleep iga'   99  
183 thou ikew (final) free 1  
39 to cook word info iluto'   20  
74 to kill imatey   2  
131 cloud word info inarak      
59 mother indo' (final) 16  
172 to climb word info ineik a. 1  
40 to drink inom   1  
140 dry word info ipetoog (final) to dry s.t.    
105 tail ipos   30  
197 One word info isa' (final), (not as modifier… that is seng- a bound form) 1  
8 to turn word info isi' (final); literally "to take"    
177 this ito' (final) this is basic form, has 4 forms each of this/that/that, 4 each of here/there/there, and 4 each of "this way/that way/that way" 10  
196 to count itong (also hear bilang) 31  
37 to eat kaan (final) 1  
41 to bite kagat   1  
90 to dig kali   1  
185 we word info kami free 2, 51  
185 we word info kay clitic 2, 51  
79 stick/wood kayo   1  
183 thou ke clitic    
153 big kela' note above under "grow larger": dekla' is root for verb form with -um-, plural adjective mededekra' (final)    
110 spider kelelawa' (final) 1  
186 you kemuyo free 1, 13  
170 when? word info kengiran if in past (final) 1, 11  
118 grass kenit-kenit lawn-type grass in general    
89 to hold word info kepet   25  
83 to work word info keradya (most generic for "work")    
20 to know, be knowledgeable keseudan tenseless "know" (final) with genitive agent    
33 to laugh kesit (most basic of many words)    
35 to vomit kesuda      
186 you kew clitic (kaw in some areas)    
3 right kewanan   1, 62  
135 lightning kilat   1  
44 to hear kingeg   1, 65  
182 I ko both clitic nominative and genitive x  
12 skin kulit   1  
37 to eat kumaan (final) = eat something 1  
41 to bite kumagat (irrealis) 1  
44 to hear kumingeg (final) 1, 65  
89 to hold word info kumpet (final) 25  
33 to laugh kumsit (irrealis)    
77 to scratch word info kumutkot (final) 21  
109 mosquito kuramot      
77 to scratch word info kutkot   21  
108 louse word info kuto   1  
128 sky langit   1  
9 to swim langoy   1  
73 to steal laog (to rob face-to-face)    
124 sea lawed (while inland the sea and seashore are "lawed") 6  
190 other le'in "other, another," or "different" 2  
93 to pound, beat word info lebek   14  
54 man/male lelaki   2, 99  
128 sky lengew-legnew (final)    
101 to fly lepad   21  
55 woman/female libon   17  
25 neck lieg (final) (no glottal) 1  
13 back word info likod (final) 1  
201 Five word info lima (final) 1  
72 to hit word info lipak      
208 Fifty word info llimang pulo' (final) 1, 2  
84 to plant luak   26  
119 earth/soil lugta'   25, 83  
9 to swim lumangoy   1  
72 to hit word info lumipak (final)    
101 to fly lumpad (final) 21  
84 to plant lumuak (final, plant item) 26  
107 worm (earthworm) lungati   1, 75  
51 to sit madong (irrealis) 47  
87 to swell word info maga' (irrealis) 1  
5 to walk manew irrealis    
29 to sniff, smell marek (irrealis) 1  
45 eye mata (final) 1  
75 to die, be dead matey mimatey 1  
7 to come mato' irrealis    
157 thick word info measlag (final), for rope etc    
154 short word info mebaba' same for both a./b. 54  
142 heavy mebegat (final) 1  
46 to see mebiri' (irrealis)    
46 to see mebiri' look at (intentional)    
159 wide mebkang (final)    
112 rotten word info meburok (final) 1, 102  
95 to fall word info medegdag (final, 1-place intransitive) 56  
39 to cook word info meg'iluto' (irrealis) 20  
82 dull, blunt megaddel   40, 27  
94 to throw word info megbakal (final) 97  
94 to throw word info megbakal (final) 97  
80 to split word info megbela' (rare), (irrealis)    
76 to live, be alive megbiag   15  
28 to breathe megginawa (irrealis) 1, 70  
90 to dig megkali (irrealis) 1  
83 to work word info megkeradya (irrealis)    
9 to swim meglangoy   1  
161 shy, ashamed megleo      
72 to hit word info meglipak (final)    
70 to shoot word info megpana' (but we don't have arrows… this would be a small spear gun for crayfish), (irrealis) 1  
88 to squeeze word info megpega (irrealis, rare in AF) 1, 37  
38 to chew word info megsepa' (irrealis) 17  
42 to suck megsepsep (final) 1  
162 old word info megurang (final) 21  
47 to yawn megwab (irrealis) 19  
138 warm word info meinit hot 23  
138 warm word info meinit-init warm 23  
147 black meitem (final) 1  
179 near mekabi'      
157 thick word info mekapal (final) = flat objects 1  
158 narrow mekitib (final) = thin object    
158 narrow mekpit narrow space between (final)    
150 yellow mekunit   1  
159 wide melawak wide space between 1, 64  
155 long word info melembo'   94  
91 to buy melen (final)    
161 shy, ashamed meleo if incidental rather than personality trait    
151 green melunew (also = blue) 33  
21 to think memikir (irrealis) 22  
85 to choose memili' (irrealis) 1  
56 child memulek (final)    
73 to steal menakew (irrealis) 1  
50 to dream meneginep (final) 30  
37 to eat mengaan (final) = eat meal 1  
74 to kill mengimatey (with no object=suicide) 2  
93 to pound, beat word info menglebek (final) 14  
84 to plant mengluak (final, plant many things) 26  
77 to scratch word info mengutkot (final) 21  
156 thin word info menipis this = flat object 1  
69 to hunt word info menubok (final)    
164 good menunga (final)    
154 short word info mepandak (final) for short people    
149 red mepula (final) 28  
148 white meputi' (final) 1  
165 bad, evil meraat var. (final) 1  
139 cold word info meramig (final) = cold 22  
139 cold word info meramig-ramig "cool" 22  
180 far merayo'   1  
64 to say meres (irrealis)    
10 dirty meridi'      
152 small merinek for tiny particle objects    
156 thin word info merinek for rope etc. (final)    
160 painful, sick mesakit   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable meseudan (final)    
81 sharp metarem   1  
165 bad, evil meyaat (final) 88  
36 to spit mibeg (final) 47  
48 to sleep miga' (final) 99  
74 to kill mimatey mimatey 2  
172 to climb word info mineik climb ladder/tree 1  
40 to drink minom (final) 1  
8 to turn word info misi' et debdeb "go straight" (chest) (irrealis)    
8 to turn word info misi' et gibang "turn left" (irrealis)    
8 to turn word info misi' et kewanan "turn right" (irrealis)    
30 mouth munong lips    
123 to flow murbor (irrealis)    
63 name ngaran   1  
170 when? word info ngiran (final) 1, 24  
31 tooth nipen tooth 1  
70 to shoot word info pana'   1  
5 to walk panew root; with -um- 2  
75 to die, be dead patey   1, 35  
62 thatch/roof pawed thatch 15  
51 to sit peadong (irrealis) 47  
49 to lie down word info pebuntol (final)    
88 to squeeze word info pega   1, 37  
44 to hear pekingeg (final) 1, 65  
171 to hide word info petago'   13  
21 to think pikir   22  
85 to choose pili'   1  
62 thatch/roof pinawed thatch 15  
80 to split word info randang if long    
80 to split word info ridis spilt a second time    
195 no, not sala' (final) if not identity; as in that's not a pig    
113 branch word info sanga   2  
62 thatch/roof sapew (final) = roof, 15  
84 to plant sasad plant rice (final)    
111 fish seda'   18  
71 to stab, pierce seksak   68  
174 in, inside seled "inside" 14  
106 snake seli      
209 One Hundred word info senggatos gatos is root used in pireng gatos ("how many hundred?") but not as modifier 4  
206 Ten word info sengpulo' (final); here's the seng- this is "ten" as modifer, in rare instances you might hear pulo' alone to mean abstract "ten" or "there were ten(s) of something" 5  
210 One Thousand word info sengribo ribo is root used in pireng ribo ("how many thousand?") but not as modifier 5  
20 to know, be knowledgeable seod (final) (no glottal between); as verb "to learn"    
38 to chew word info sepa'   17  
42 to suck sepsep   1  
34 to cry siak (final) (no glottal)    
205 Nine word info siam (final) 9  
65 rope siget s/t to tie with 77  
66 to tie up, fasten siget      
66 to tie up, fasten sigtan Dir. Focus.    
189 who? word info sino (some areas si'no) 14, 47  
176 below sirib (under object) if under a house (which is on stilts) 27  
176 below sirong under shade of tree/eave etc 35, 78  
69 to hunt word info subok (most generic of many terms)    
166 correct, true sugat "correct" (final)    
35 to vomit suka   9  
71 to stab, pierce sumeksak (final) 68  
34 to cry sumiak (final)    
66 to tie up, fasten sumiget (irrealis)    
35 to vomit sumuka   9  
53 person/human being taaw (final) 1  
104 fat/grease taba' (final) 23  
145 smoke word info tabok   30  
171 to hide word info tago'   13  
73 to steal takew   1  
22 to fear takot   1  
65 rope tali rope 1  
127 woods/forest talon   30  
191 all tanan   24  
31 tooth tango eye tooth    
169 year te'on (final) 1  
50 to dream teginep   30  
109 mosquito tegnek other type (final) 27  
67 to sew word info tehi'   1  
43 ear telinga (final) 1  
199 Three word info telo   1  
137 to blow word info tepig b. (final)    
137 to blow word info tepiog b. (final)    
52 to stand teyeg      
78 to cut, hack word info tigbas = chop with machete or ax 106  
4 leg/foot tiked (final) 108  
98 egg tilog   1, 76  
175 above timbew top surface or above the surface 2, 20  
172 to climb word info tindal (final) for ladder    
16 intestines tine'i small intestine 1  
140 dry word info toog a. & b.    
92 to open, uncover tukas      
15 bone tulang   1  
22 to fear tumakot (irrealis) 1  
67 to sew word info tumehi' (irrealis) 1  
137 to blow word info tumepig b. (final)    
137 to blow word info tumepiog b. (final)    
78 to cut, hack word info tumigbas (final)    
172 to climb word info tumindal (final) "go up stairs"    
140 dry word info tumoog b.    
92 to open, uncover tumukas = open lid (final)    
172 to climb word info tumungol (final)    
144 to burn word info tumutong (final) set fire to s.t. 1, 94  
52 to stand tumyeg (final)    
172 to climb word info tungol b. (final)    
203 Seven word info turo' (final)    
144 to burn word info tutong (act of burning something) 1, 94  
24 head ulo   1  
103 meat/flesh uned (final) 27  
47 to yawn wab   19  
204 Eight word info walo   3  
184 he/she ya   1  
178 that yatin (most common and inuitive… see annotation for "this") 55  

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