https://abvd.shh.mpg.de : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Tolai

Source/Author:  Lawrence Vue, Malcolm Ross 
Notes:  Also known as Kuanua. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Janet Moody  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Western Oceanic:Meso Melanesian:New Ireland:South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand limana   1  
1 hand a limana   1  
2 left lima maira   1, 59  
3 right liman tuna   5, 70  
4 leg/foot a ka una   1  
4 leg/foot a kauna   1  
5 to walk i vana   2, 64  
5 to walk i vana vana   2, 64  
6 road/path nga   20  
7 to come i po ot   32  
8 to turn word info i vilalikun      
9 to swim i alir   44  
10 dirty dur   68  
11 dust tobon   62  
12 skin a palina   30  
13 back word info a muru na   3  
14 belly a balana   18  
15 bone a uruna   52  
16 intestines a vivilau na balana   26, 28  
17 liver a katina   1  
18 breast a libongaina      
18 breast luuna   1  
19 shoulder a ula va ra na   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable i nunure   53  
21 to think      
22 to fear a bul i burut a/the child is afraid 28  
22 to fear burut to be afraid 28  
23 blood a gapuna   5  
24 head a uluna   1  
25 neck a ingoana      
26 hair word info a kat kat na uluna      
27 nose a bilauna   1, 95  
28 to breathe i mama dang      
29 to sniff, smell i angi ne   11  
30 mouth a ngiene      
31 tooth a palangiene   24  
31 tooth a gorop na ngiene   24  
32 tongue a karameana   7, 14  
33 to laugh i no ng on   16  
34 to cry i tangi   1  
35 to vomit marmaruai   37  
36 to spit a tekena gagami      
37 to eat i ian   1  
38 to chew word info i mamai b. used exclusively for chewing betelnut and not used with food or anything else. 1  
39 to cook word info i papara ta ra ubu 'he/she "mumued" (cooked) with an earth oven' 52  
39 to cook word info i tu tun ta ra iap 'he/she cooked it on a/the fire' 9  
39 to cook word info i kuk na tava 'he/she boiled water (or a liquid)'. Tok Pisin loan? <kuk na tava> is arguably a noun-incorporation construction   L?
39 to cook word info papara a specific type of cooking 52  
39 to cook word info tutun a specific type of cooking 9  
39 to cook word info kuk general term, but probably Tok Pisin loan   L
40 to drink i mo mo   27  
41 to bite a pap i kakakarat 'a/the pup bites'. <pap> = 'dog'; <i> = 3sg subject marker; <kakakarat> = 'biting' (one reduplication could be detransitivising/progressive, the other is perhaps intensity.) 1  
41 to bite karat   1  
42 to suck i-u   25  
43 ear a talingana   1  
44 to hear i valongor   1, 36  
45 eye a matana   1  
46 to see i bo bo   63  
47 to yawn mauviap   19  
48 to sleep i va = he sleeps    
49 to lie down word info      
50 to dream i ri rivon could be i ririvon 35  
51 to sit i ki ki ka   20  
52 to stand tur   2, 69  
53 person/human being      
54 man/male tutana   44  
55 woman/female avavina   1, 106  
56 child bul child 37  
57 husband kana tutana his/her husband 51  
57 husband taulai spouse: < *tau + *laki 55, 28  
58 wife kana vavina his/her wife 5, 68  
58 wife taulai spouse 39  
59 mother kana mama his/her mother 5  
59 mother mama Tok Pisin loan? 5 L?
60 father kana tete 'his/her father' 15  
60 father tama- bound form, requiring possessor suffix 1  
61 house pal   14  
62 thatch/roof      
63 name a iangina 0r 1? 20  
64 to say i ta ta = he speaks    
65 rope vinau   39  
66 to tie up, fasten i kukubu I don't know this form, but based on the structure <kubu> is probably the lexeme. <i kukubu> probably means 'he/she ties up/fastens' and <kubu ra kukubu> probably means 'tie/fasten the fastenings'. 51  
66 to tie up, fasten kubu ra kukubu   51  
67 to sew word info i ingit   43  
68 needle      
69 to hunt word info i rovoi   37  
70 to shoot word info i ponok   1  
71 to stab, pierce i goa   50  
72 to hit word info i varu bu   44  
73 to steal i long   56  
74 to kill doko to kill (transitive) 39  
75 to die, be dead i mat   1  
76 to live, be alive la un   31  
77 to scratch word info i ka ka   5  
77 to scratch word info i kara ik   10  
78 to cut, hack word info i poko   56  
79 stick/wood a pakana davai   1  
80 to split word info i kulit      
81 sharp mangi      
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info papalum   45  
84 to plant i ing ra kau kau <i ing ra kau kau> is a full sentence - not just a lexeme for 'to plant'. I would guess that the lexeme for 'to plant' is <ing>, although I'm not familiar with this word. <i> = 3sg subject marker; <ra> = noun marker/article; <kaukau> = sweet potato 41  
85 to choose i pilak   1, 28  
86 to grow word info lubang   19  
87 to swell word info i ung      
88 to squeeze word info i liu      
89 to hold word info i vaturia <i vaturia> means 'he/she holds it'. <i> = 3sg subject marker; <va-> = causative prefix; <tur> = 'to stand'; <-ia> = 3sg object enclitic 51  
90 to dig i kakal   1  
91 to buy i kulia   15  
92 to open, uncover i pa pa ra banbanu = he opens (a door)    
92 to open, uncover papa to open 34  
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info i vue   67  
95 to fall word info i bura   117  
96 dog pap   37  
97 bird beo      
98 egg kiau   31  
99 feather ivuna   7  
100 wing be be ei ra beo wing of the bird/bird's wing    
100 wing bebe   34  
101 to fly beo i pururung means 'the/a bird is flying' 29  
101 to fly pururung   29  
102 rat galang      
103 meat/flesh viono   10  
104 fat/grease a monoina   1, 65  
105 tail tauk   79  
106 snake a ui   17  
107 worm (earthworm) go go ulom      
108 louse word info pal      
108 louse word info a'ut   1  
109 mosquito mu mu   1  
109 mosquito a ngatingat   41  
110 spider kailoko   28  
111 fish en   1  
112 rotten word info marapup   39  
113 branch word info ingara da vai   50  
114 leaf mapinadavai   58  
115 root okoradavai   2  
116 flower pur pur   13 L?
117 fruit      
118 grass vura   50  
118 grass kunai   43  
119 earth/soil a pi could be api 16  
120 stone a vat could be avat 1  
121 sand a veu could be aveu 96  
122 water word info tava   31  
123 to flow i alir   24  
124 sea a ta   1  
125 salt a bil could be abil    
126 lake tavakikil 'water-round'    
127 woods/forest lokor   46  
128 sky bakut   30  
129 moon vagam      
130 star tagul   36  
131 cloud word info gavul   48  
132 fog oala   56  
133 rain a bata   8  
134 thunder vaul   44  
135 lightning pi pi   46  
136 wind vuvu the wind blew/is blowing 33  
136 wind avuvu i vuvu means both 'wind' and 'to blow' 33  
137 to blow word info      
138 warm word info i malapang   32  
139 cold word info i mudian   40  
140 dry word info matetek   101  
140 dry word info ige      
141 wet pu puk      
142 heavy i mamat   46, 35  
143 fire iap   1  
144 to burn word info tun to burn 1  
144 to burn word info a iap i io "fire is burning" 72  
145 smoke word info a mi could be ami 39  
146 ash kabu   70  
147 black korong   34  
148 white pua   29  
149 red birau      
150 yellow viau      
151 green launa      
152 small nat   41  
152 small ik irregular loss of *r 66  
152 small ikilik   66  
153 big ngala na boroi big pig 115  
153 big nagla      
154 short word info tutukan could be tu tu kan 66  
155 long word info lo lo vina   98  
156 thin word info pala ur      
157 thick word info      
158 narrow nga tur   29  
159 wide palar   33  
160 painful, sick i kale ra pidian Sheena Van Der Mark: meaning of 'pidian' unknown    
160 painful, sick i kale ra manua he/she has a cut/sore 49  
160 painful, sick kadik to be painful 54  
160 painful, sick mait to be sick    
161 shy, ashamed      
162 old word info maulana   47  
163 new kalamana   35  
164 good bona pal      
165 bad, evil kaina   1  
166 correct, true i kodo   13  
167 night marum   20  
168 day maup      
169 year kilala   35  
170 when? word info vingaia?   1, 24  
171 to hide word info i parau   9  
172 to climb word info      
173 at      
174 in, inside olo to enter, go through 1  
175 above      
176 below      
177 this a pal nin   15  
178 that nam ra pal i vailik      
178 that nam ra pal i mara vai      
179 near      
180 far      
181 where? word info      
182 I iau   1, 21  
183 thou      
184 he/she ia proper name fem x  
184 he/she to proper name masc x  
185 we word info u datal va utul could be vautul 6  
185 we word info a mital va utul      
185 we word info amirkaka      
185 we word info amirikani      
185 we word info amirika      
185 we word info amir   2  
186 you a mutal va utul could be vautul x  
186 you avat   1, 29  
186 you u-ulu   x  
187 they dital vautul vautul written as one word this time x  
187 they diat   25, 41  
187 they dir waurua   x  
188 what? word info dave   1  
189 who? word info i ia   1, 28  
190 other diat      
191 all diat par      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not pata   51  
196 to count i luluk could be i lu luk 30  
197 One word info tike   43  
197 One word info tikai   43  
198 Two word info urade   1  
198 Two word info aurua   1  
199 Three word info tamapu      
199 Three word info autul   1  
200 Four word info kaiti   1, 65  
200 Four word info aiwat   1, 65  
201 Five word info kaita      
201 Five word info ailima   1  
202 Six word info laptikai 'plus one' 6  
202 Six word info laptikai   6  
203 Seven word info lavurua 'plus two' 24  
204 Eight word info lavutul   5, 7  
205 Nine word info lavuvat   15  
205 Nine word info lavuwat   15  
206 Ten word info avinun   20  
206 Ten word info avinun   20  
207 Twenty word info a uravinun      
208 Fifty word info a ilima na vinun      
209 One Hundred word info a mar   6  
210 One Thousand word info tikana arip   5  

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