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Language: Rukai (Budai F69)

Source/Author:  Ferrell (1969) 
Notes:  Ferrell, R.(1969). Taiwan Aboriginal Groups: Problems in cultural and linguistic classification. Monograph 17: Institute of Ethnology, Academica Sinica 
Problems:  Some slightly different cognacy - see annotations column.

Andreea: replaced /đ/ with /ð/ (cf. book). 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Simon Greenhill  Checked By: Simon Greenhill 
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 246
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 4
 
Classification:  Austronesian:Rukai 
Map 
 

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Change History:

Showing 3 of 14 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand ʔa:rimáʔ   1  
1 hand sətapai      
1 hand arema   1  
2 left viríʔ   1  
3 right vanál   1  
4 leg/foot dapal'   55  
4 leg/foot daʔal'   55  
4 leg/foot tsapku      
4 leg/foot amou      
5 to walk udadawác'   23  
6 road/path kaur'á   42  
6 road/path kaələa   42  
6 road/path kadarananə   1  
7 to come niamá'      
7 to come wakə:la   39  
8 to turn word info maliuliús   2  
9 to swim walaŋúi   1  
10 dirty malisíʔ      
11 dust səvə́g'      
12 skin ikid'   62  
13 back word info dərə́k'   71  
14 belly baráŋ'   67  
15 bone      
16 intestines boʔóroʔ   53  
17 liver ʔatái   1  
18 breast totóʔ   1  
19 shoulder livadáŋ   49  
19 shoulder tabalaŋa   7  
20 to know, be knowledgeable watiŋál'   71  
21 to think kiarəm'rə́m' looks like this form is entered wrong. 13  
22 to fear mok'lə́d'   57  
23 blood ərái   40  
24 head ʔáoloʔ   1  
24 head kapallu Skt kapala 'skull' 45 L
25 neck rə'əʔ   1  
25 neck rolun      
25 neck ourohu      
26 hair word info isí'oʔ   50  
26 hair word info ussioi   50  
27 nose ŋuŋu'á   28?  
27 nose coumonu      
27 nose ongoho [AF] isn't it cognate with #27 *ŋusu? 27?  
28 to breathe manianiák'   59  
29 to sniff, smell wasabáliʔ   3  
30 mouth ŋodə́i   71  
30 mouth ŋodui   71  
30 mouth muto-mytou   72  
31 tooth valis'   2  
32 tongue ridám'   3  
33 to laugh macacawáʔ   1  
34 to cry watobí:'   54  
35 to vomit suaŋalái      
36 to spit ŋalái Sputum / Spittle not verb 3  
37 to eat wakan'   1  
38 to chew word info      
39 to cook word info wagáʔ      
40 to drink woŋól'   45  
41 to bite wakác' prefixed kaRaC. Irreg. -C 1  
42 to suck waqa:nuqanúʔ      
43 ear cáliŋaʔ   1  
43 ear charinga   1  
44 to hear kialaláʔ   52  
45 eye macáʔ   1  
45 eye macha   1  
46 to see wacəʔə́l'   77  
47 to yawn      
48 to sleep wapə́c'   77  
48 to sleep oaʔəcə   77  
49 to lie down word info ʔikaiŋa waʔət'      
50 to dream      
51 to sit watakainə́n'   103  
52 to stand wáidi:'   1  
52 to stand wá'iri:   1?  
53 person/human being ʔomás'      
54 man/male sawalái   1, 108  
54 man/male sarellai   1, 108  
54 man/male aoolai   1, 108  
55 woman/female ʔababái   1, 105  
55 woman/female abaia   1  
56 child rola'i   20  
56 child lalak'   1  
57 husband      
58 wife      
59 mother tináʔ   1  
60 father ta:máʔ   1  
61 house da:n'   41  
61 house dami      
62 thatch/roof      
63 name nagán'   1  
64 to say kawárevaʔ   100  
65 rope ʔunái      
66 to tie up, fasten wa'rə́c'   71  
66 to tie up, fasten wa'və́g      
67 to sew word info wacaicaisi CaqiS 1, 52  
68 needle      
69 to hunt word info walúp   1  
69 to hunt word info oaloʔo   1  
70 to shoot word info wabilakác'      
71 to stab, pierce warakád'      
71 to stab, pierce wadər'də́r'      
72 to hit word info wasasərúr' to hit (with fist)    
73 to steal      
74 to kill wabicaluʔ      
74 to kill wapacai   2  
75 to die, be dead waʔacái   1  
75 to die, be dead opacai   1  
76 to live, be alive maliliŋái   67?  
77 to scratch word info ʔogacəgácə   62  
78 to cut, hack word info wati'ábuʔ   39  
79 stick/wood kawaʔ Tree / wood 1  
79 stick/wood ʔaŋátuʔ Tree / wood 18  
80 to split word info mauvagái      
80 to split word info matatibi:'      
81 sharp magaráŋ   41  
82 dull, blunt mailút'   53?  
83 to work word info ʔaitotomá:ʔ      
84 to plant      
85 to choose      
86 to grow word info      
87 to swell word info      
88 to squeeze word info wagəm'gə́m Squeeze (in hand)    
89 to hold word info ma:laʔáʔ      
90 to dig waroqóʔ   42  
91 to buy      
92 to open, uncover      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info wadukúruʔ   61  
95 to fall word info      
96 dog taupóŋ   40  
97 bird aðaðám   2  
98 egg batók' Why [k] and not [ʔ]? L? -EG 32  
99 feather paridi'   27  
99 feather ʔaridi   27  
99 feather romó:'   28  
100 wing parédi'   2  
101 to fly ʔaŋia:palái   49  
102 rat təlíkiʔ      
103 meat/flesh bu'át' cogante w/ Sirarya ? 37  
104 fat/grease simá'   2  
105 tail tawə́s   26  
105 tail taoto   26  
106 snake ʔəlolái   62  
106 snake sulan [n] for expected 0 < *ʀ -EG 2? L?
107 worm (earthworm) ʔalələbai      
108 louse word info da:cəʔ   31  
108 louse word info da:coʔ   31  
108 louse word info ko:co:   1  
109 mosquito ʔatatimaláu   31  
109 mosquito tumuŋutu      
110 spider takəraravat' < *(taka)lawas 1, 75  
111 fish ká'aŋ < PAN *KaRang 'crab' (LS) 3  
112 rotten word info mabár'   1  
113 branch word info      
114 leaf      
115 root balác'   7  
116 flower bən'lái      
117 fruit madə́'   2  
118 grass ʔubə́l'   59  
119 earth/soil da'éʔ   30  
120 stone rənə́g'   34  
121 sand ʔənái   1  
122 water word info ʔacilái   46  
122 water word info achilai   46  
123 to flow moʔarór   25  
124 sea báyu   54  
124 sea raḍəkə   53  
124 sea baoŋ   5  
125 salt timóʔ   2  
126 lake báyuʔ   30  
127 woods/forest      
128 sky ʔəməʔə́məʔ      
129 moon damar   25  
130 star tariáu   45  
131 cloud word info əmə́'əm'   80  
132 fog camcám'      
133 rain ʔudál'   1  
134 thunder dərdə́r' irreg loss of rhyme 4  
135 lightning rikác'   89  
136 wind várig' L? Expect [bari]. -EG 2  
137 to blow word info wa'épiʔ   1  
138 warm word info waḍaŋḍáŋ   78  
139 cold word info makəcə́r'   2  
140 dry word info maməál   87  
141 wet madi:rəsə́ŋ   75  
142 heavy matiulə́g   49  
143 fire aʔói   1  
143 fire apoulu   1?  
143 fire apoy   1  
144 to burn word info kualaʔáub' Note: Intransitive not Transitive. 78  
145 smoke word info ʔəbə́l' *qebel 1  
145 smoke word info uburon   1  
146 ash ʔábuʔ   1  
147 black maicələ́ŋ'   2  
148 white malədə́ʔ   78?  
148 white pupili   111  
149 red dirərə́l'   74  
150 yellow bobə́rau'a'      
151 green saləsəsəʔ Green / Blue 56  
152 small təkí'aʔ   84  
153 big maḍáu   33  
154 short word info ʔədə́kai   2  
155 long word info mataŋəláʔ   66  
156 thin word info maləbíri'      
157 thick word info makidəmə́l   21  
158 narrow matiki:   52  
159 wide mua:ráu      
160 painful, sick əáŋ'əaŋ      
160 painful, sick macaəm   3  
161 shy, ashamed      
162 old word info marədáŋ   130  
163 new ba'o'a'   1  
164 good matarír'   77  
165 bad, evil malisi:'   62  
166 correct, true tatəŋánuli:'   62  
167 night ma'úŋ   2  
168 day váian   17  
169 year caili from Laurent Sagart; L from Mantauran? -EG 22  
170 when? word info kəigaʔ   1, 25  
170 when? word info ləígaʔ   1, 47  
171 to hide word info      
172 to climb word info      
173 at      
174 in, inside yakái      
174 in, inside adiŋ   38  
175 above bələ́ŋ   44  
176 below dauda:ə́ʔ   25  
177 this kaivái   30?  
178 that ku'ani'   23  
179 near wadə́:ð'   3  
180 far ʔadáil'   2  
181 where? word info yaká'inuʔ   1?  
182 I kunakoʔ   1  
183 thou kəsó:'   1  
184 he/she kua:níʔ   16  
185 we word info kunakuʔ      
185 we word info kota   1  
185 we word info kənái   38  
186 you konomi   7  
187 they kuanilaka'í'      
188 what? word info manə́maʔ *nema 16  
189 who? word info ʔanə́'aʔ   32  
190 other kuará:'      
191 all dumu:dumáʔ      
192 and ʔiraʔ      
193 if      
194 how? word info ma:tómaʔ   43  
195 no, not      
196 to count wa:sípiʔ   3  
197 One word info ʔə'aʔ   1?  
197 One word info denga      
198 Two word info rusaʔ   1  
198 Two word info nousa   1  
199 Three word info turúʔ   1  
199 Three word info toro   1  
200 Four word info spa:t'   1  
200 Four word info patù   1  
201 Five word info rimáʔ   1  
201 Five word info limà   1  
202 Six word info neum   1  
202 Six word info neuma   1  
202 Six word info ʔənə́m'   1  
203 Seven word info pitúʔ   1  
203 Seven word info pitò   1  
204 Eight word info varóʔ   3  
204 Eight word info mevarou   3  
205 Nine word info baŋát'   8  
205 Nine word info bangato   8  
205 Nine word info bangatu   8  
206 Ten word info porók'   5 L
206 Ten word info pouroukou   5 L
207 Twenty word info mapusál'   1  
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info ʔidái   1  
210 One Thousand word info      

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