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Language: Kavalan F69

Source/Author:  Ferrell (1969) 
Notes:  Ferrell, R.(1969). Taiwan Aboriginal Groups: Problems in cultural and linguistic classification. Monograph 17: Institute of Ethnology, Academica Sinica 
Problems:  Some slightly different cognacy - see annotations column. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Simon Greenhill  Checked By: Simon Greenhill 
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 456
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 1
 
Classification:  Austronesian:East Formosan:Northern:Kavalan 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
175 above [ta-]ba:báu   2  
191 all məni'íl   61  
191 all mŋe:ẓ   61  
191 all maniz   61  
191 all hanizka      
192 and səɣəí:   52  
146 ash yibúʔ   1  
146 ash ʔi:búʔ   1  
173 at      
13 back word info sáwaq      
13 back word info to:ɣól   36  
13 back word info doror      
165 bad, evil məsu:káu   70  
165 bad, evil lalass      
14 belly pələ́s   64  
14 belly bəɬɬə́s   64  
14 belly tian   1  
14 belly tteyan   1  
176 below li:bə́ŋ   69  
176 below talbə́ŋ   69  
153 big ɣa:yáʔ   1  
153 big raia   1  
97 bird ʔaɬám   2  
147 black təŋə́ŋ   2  
147 black tŭngŭn   2  
23 blood ɣaináŋ   38  
23 blood ɣe:náŋ   38  
23 blood rinang   38  
23 blood renan   38  
15 bone tiɣán   43  
15 bone tiaɣán   43  
15 bone tiran   43  
113 branch word info      
18 breast si:súʔ   1  
56 child su:nís   58  
131 cloud word info ranə́m   35 2?
131 cloud word info rānum   35  
131 cloud word info la:nə́m   35  
139 cold word info sassə́n   87  
139 cold word info səssə́n   87  
139 cold word info sass'n   87  
166 correct, true maikə́n   65  
168 day taɣa:itíʔ   44  
168 day taɣeiʔ   44  
168 day darri   44  
168 day darreiti   44  
10 dirty paqsiláp      
10 dirty moɣamu:tiéɣ      
10 dirty matar   93  
96 dog wásuʔ   1  
96 dog wasu   1  
140 dry word info maisə́ŋ   33  
82 dull, blunt mŋa:ẓə́s   47  
82 dull, blunt mɣa:ẓə́s   47  
11 dust tavéq   47  
11 dust tiaɣmóq   26  
43 ear ka:yál   34  
43 ear kaiar   34  
43 ear kayal   34  
119 earth/soil mranái   38  
119 earth/soil mla:náy   38  
119 earth/soil mranai   38  
98 egg ti:ɣóh   1  
98 egg ti:ɣóɣ   1  
204 Eight word info va:rúʔ   3  
204 Eight word info ʔuwalóʔ   3  
204 Eight word info waru   3  
204 Eight word info aru   3  
45 eye ma:táʔ   1  
45 eye mata   1  
180 far məla:úl *ma-zauN/R -EG 2  
180 far ma-ra-ul   2  
180 far ma-za-ul   2  
104 fat/grease simá   2  
104 fat/grease missíʔ      
60 father ta:máʔ   1  
60 father tamma   1  
99 feather pakəz      
99 feather li:nás   60  
99 feather vanús   59  
99 feather kba:nəɬ      
208 Fifty word info      
143 fire ɣamáẓ   14  
143 fire ɣa:mál   14  
143 fire amaz/lamar   14  
143 fire ramah   14  
111 fish ba'ə́t   31  
111 fish ba:ót   31  
111 fish vaūt   31  
201 Five word info ʔulimáʔ   1  
201 Five word info limáʔ   1  
201 Five word info lima   1  
116 flower sima'óʔ      
116 flower mu:láy   49  
116 flower murai   49  
132 fog təlumtiʔ      
200 Four word info spát   1  
200 Four word info ʔuspát   1  
200 Four word info supat   1  
117 fruit disana pəru:rúʔ      
164 good nəŋíʔ   94  
164 good nəŋŋáʔ      
164 good malaka      
118 grass su'ái   66  
151 green pu:líʔ Green 60  
151 green b'nuran Blue    
26 hair word info buqə́s   1  
26 hair word info vukŭss   1  
26 hair word info vokko   1  
1 hand limáʔ   1, 64  
1 hand ɣukáp   3  
1 hand rukap   3  
1 hand rima   1, 64  
184 he/she ʔaizip   20  
24 head uɣúʔ   1  
24 head ʔo:ɣóʔ   1  
24 head uru   1  
24 head uvu   1  
142 heavy ẓinnə́q   55  
61 house rəpáu   54  
61 house ləppáw   54  
61 house rapao   54  
194 how? word info mánaʔ      
194 how? word info snaku:ní:   45  
57 husband      
182 I ʔaikúʔ   1  
182 I aiku   1  
193 if      
174 in, inside ʔaso:náʔ      
174 in, inside ta      
16 intestines nalnáq      
16 intestines tná:ɬ   1  
16 intestines neɣa:sóɣ      
126 lake vutvut      
126 lake bəttóq      
114 leaf viɣé:ʔ   2  
114 leaf viri   2  
2 left kumawi:líʔ   1, 42  
4 leg/foot ɣa:pán   55  
4 leg/foot rapan   55  
135 lightning riẓa'áp   3  
135 lightning li:ẓáp   3  
135 lightning lirap   3  
17 liver pnaẓəŋi:tán   24  
155 long word info maɣɣóŋ   71  
155 long word info marung   71  
155 long word info mahung   71  
108 louse word info tiran      
108 louse word info qo:tóʔ   1  
108 louse word info kutúʔ   1  
108 louse word info tu:mə́s   3  
54 man/male unanái   1  
54 man/male ɣonanáy   1  
54 man/male riunanai   1  
103 meat/flesh ʔəsiʔ   1  
103 meat/flesh ʔs:iʔ   1  
103 meat/flesh bisor      
129 moon bu:rán   1  
129 moon bu:lán   1  
129 moon buran   1  
129 moon vulan   1  
109 mosquito ɣi'ís *ʀeqiS - EG 71  
109 mosquito ɣeis *ʀeqiS - EG 71  
59 mother tí:naʔ   1  
30 mouth ŋi:víɣ   66  
30 mouth ngivir   66  
30 mouth nigiv   66  
30 mouth ngoyok      
63 name na:ŋán   1  
158 narrow ki:tút      
158 narrow pa:síɬ   56  
158 narrow basil   56  
179 near məra:ki   84  
179 near mẓa:kiʔ   84  
179 near ma-ra-ki   84  
25 neck rurə́n   58  
25 neck lu:lə́n   58  
25 neck lu:nóq      
25 neck lulun   58  
68 needle      
163 new ta:súʔ   40  
167 night tuban tituhabiʔ cf *Rabi; [h] is perhaps unexpected. -EG 21  
167 night qa:ɣa:biʔ cf *Rabi 21  
167 night raviti cf *Rabi, but what is -ti ? 21  
205 Nine word info siwáʔ   5  
205 Nine word info ʔusiwáʔ   5  
205 Nine word info siwa   5  
195 no, not      
27 nose ʔunu'úŋ   1  
27 nose ʔu:núŋ   1  
27 nose unung   1  
27 nose unom   1  
162 old word info baibələ́n Old Person 110  
162 old word info ba:qqayán Old Person 34  
162 old word info baybɬán Old Person 110  
197 One word info ʔissái   1, 61  
197 One word info issa   1  
197 One word info isa   1  
209 One Hundred word info ɣasi:búʔ   26  
209 One Hundred word info mrasivu   26  
210 One Thousand word info      
190 other raratayáu      
160 painful, sick taɣáu   81  
160 painful, sick mta:ɣáw   81  
53 person/human being ẓa:rát   9  
53 person/human being ɬa:ẓát   9  
133 rain ʔuẓál   1  
133 rain ʔu:ẓán   1  
133 rain uran   1  
133 rain uzan   1  
102 rat motə́n   31  
102 rat mu:tún   31  
102 rat mla:báw   1  
149 red təba:ɣé'   79  
149 red t'barei   79  
3 right kawa:nán   1, 62  
6 road/path la:rán   1  
6 road/path la:ẓán   1  
6 road/path zaran   1  
6 road/path rathan   1  
115 root ɣa:bás   11  
115 root ravass   11  
65 rope qəli:ẓə́n      
65 rope ɣa:is   70  
112 rotten word info məlatók   84  
112 rotten word info mɬi:óq   83  
125 salt ẓəmián   28  
125 salt z'mian   28  
121 sand buqán   73  
121 sand vuhan   73  
124 sea ẓi'ín   57  
124 sea la:ẓiŋ   57  
124 sea rzin   57  
124 sea rthin   57  
124 sea z'rin   57  
203 Seven word info pi:túʔ   1  
203 Seven word info ʔupitóʔ   1  
203 Seven word info pitu   1  
81 sharp ma:náŋ   64  
154 short word info məkəẓə́s   76  
154 short word info məkəẓẓóʔ   76  
154 short word info k'zu   76  
19 shoulder tɣi'áɣ   41  
19 shoulder tqa:yáɣ   41  
19 shoulder triar   41  
19 shoulder kreiar   41  
161 shy, ashamed      
202 Six word info ʔu:nnə́m   1  
202 Six word info nim   1  
202 Six word info n'm   1  
202 Six word info unum   1  
202 Six word info ʔnə́m   1  
12 skin luvə́ŋ   60  
12 skin lu:búŋ   60  
12 skin luvung   60  
12 skin ruvung   60  
128 sky ləẓán left-reduced form of Amis. 67  
128 sky ləẓəán   67  
128 sky ɬəɬan   67  
128 sky z'lan   67  
128 sky l'zan   67  
128 sky ran   67  
152 small ki:tə́t   88  
152 small kia      
145 smoke word info qi:ɣáb   67  
145 smoke word info qe:ɣə́b   67  
145 smoke word info kairŭm      
145 smoke word info teirŭm      
145 smoke word info hirŭv   67  
106 snake siqqái   58  
110 spider va:tə́ŋ   29?  
110 spider pa:qáw   54  
130 star bəltaɬán   58  
130 star bat'lan   58  
130 star mat'ran   58  
130 star waturun   58  
79 stick/wood pa:ɣín Tree / wood 22  
79 stick/wood pa:ɣəíŋ Tree / wood 22  
79 stick/wood barin Tree / wood    
79 stick/wood si-p'ri Tree / wood    
120 stone batúʔ   1  
120 stone bəttóʔ   1  
120 stone vato   1  
120 stone vatu   1  
105 tail liqə́ẓ *likul 41  
105 tail lie:qóɬ *likul 41  
206 Ten word info stəɣái   15  
206 Ten word info trai   15  
206 Ten word info tahai   15  
206 Ten word info ɣaptin   6  
178 that ya'úʔ      
178 that wiyu      
178 that wanistaoan      
62 thatch/roof      
187 they maẓəmun ya'ó'   17  
187 they kammáw      
157 thick word info ətúẓ   53  
157 thick word info ɣottóẓ   53  
156 thin word info ʔinpís ...-N-[ ]-pis 1, 47  
156 thin word info ʔimpis   1, 47?  
177 this ʔánəm      
177 this ẓaóʔ   32  
177 this izistaoan      
183 thou ʔaisúʔ   1  
183 thou ʔaysóʔ   1  
183 thou -isóʔ   1  
183 thou aisu   1  
199 Three word info tulúʔ   1  
199 Three word info ʔutu:lóʔ   1  
199 Three word info tulu   1  
199 Three word info tusu   1  
134 thunder ẓəŋẓə́ŋ irreg. loss of -R- 3, 98  
134 thunder zŭng-zŭng irreg. loss of -R- 3, 98  
41 to bite qma:ɣát   1  
137 to blow word info təmaváʔ      
137 to blow word info səmiúp   1  
28 to breathe səməŋáh   61  
28 to breathe sməŋŋáẓ *Seŋa[dz] 61  
144 to burn word info puɣa:már Note: Intransitive not Transitive.    
144 to burn word info mo:ɣás Note: Intransitive not Transitive.    
144 to burn word info mtu:tú:n Note: Intransitive not Transitive.    
91 to buy      
38 to chew word info      
85 to choose      
172 to climb word info      
7 to come kautúʔ   41  
7 to come qawtóʔ   41  
7 to come naori      
7 to come akwa      
39 to cook word info samál   89  
39 to cook word info ɣa:mál   89  
196 to count biláŋ   1  
196 to count pasabi:ɬáŋ   1  
34 to cry mu:ɣíŋ   71  
34 to cry muring   71  
78 to cut, hack word info qəma:nív   64  
75 to die, be dead pa:tái   1  
90 to dig ka:lkál   1  
90 to dig kmutkút LS 13  
50 to dream      
40 to drink siɣóp SiRup 18  
40 to drink mna:núm   19  
37 to eat kanpai   1  
37 to eat qmá:n   1  
37 to eat k'man   1  
37 to eat han   1  
95 to fall word info təmibúk   3  
95 to fall word info tmi:bóq   3  
22 to fear moqtə́t      
22 to fear maytís   54  
123 to flow səmúr      
123 to flow sma:qáy      
101 to fly nuba:sáɣ   66  
101 to fly no:ba:sə́ɣ   66  
86 to grow word info      
44 to hear pi:léŋ      
44 to hear mi:píẓ   62  
44 to hear darav      
171 to hide word info      
72 to hit word info puqún to hit (with fist) 33  
89 to hold word info ʔalai   4  
89 to hold word info ma:láʔ   4  
69 to hunt word info saláup Expected medial [n] for [l]. L? -EG 48  
69 to hunt word info mlo:lók      
74 to kill məttúŋ   79  
74 to kill mutung   79  
20 to know, be knowledgeable su:pəɣán SupeR-an 32  
20 to know, be knowledgeable su:ppóɣ SupeR 32  
33 to laugh kokoẓán      
33 to laugh mta:wáʔ   1  
49 to lie down word info səẓitáŋ   80  
49 to lie down word info sibu:bu:lín      
76 to live, be alive manbinús   66  
76 to live, be alive bi:nús   66  
92 to open, uncover      
84 to plant      
93 to pound, beat word info      
64 to say siqaumáʔ   124  
64 to say si:kawmáʔ   124  
64 to say sikaoma   124  
77 to scratch word info kaɣau   1  
77 to scratch word info təbəs      
77 to scratch word info qa:ɣáw   1  
46 to see tmaytáʔ   74  
46 to see mqita   1  
67 to sew word info təma'ís [Ct]aqiS 1, 52  
67 to sew word info təmaksám      
70 to shoot word info battúʔ   24  
70 to shoot word info pma:níʔ   1  
51 to sit qalə́r      
51 to sit maɬə́ɬ   113  
48 to sleep mainə́p from "to lie down" 8, 74  
48 to sleep meinŭp   8, 74  
29 to sniff, smell vaŋsís      
29 to sniff, smell smi:ŋút *Siŋut 26  
29 to sniff, smell smanuk   1  
29 to sniff, smell smingut *Siŋut 26  
36 to spit tiapə́s Sputum / Spittle not verb 33  
36 to spit qa:t Sputum / Spittle not verb 76  
80 to split word info məŋaɣ      
80 to split word info subbít      
88 to squeeze word info qumənə́ɣ Squeeze (in hand)    
88 to squeeze word info pumẓáq Squeeze (in hand); *peleq 1?  
71 to stab, pierce toqaiqaqái      
71 to stab, pierce tmuqéq      
52 to stand teɣéʔ   81  
52 to stand mieɣeiʔ   81  
73 to steal      
42 to suck səpsə́p   1  
42 to suck smi:sə́p   1  
42 to suck smupsúp   1  
87 to swell word info      
9 to swim mənaŋúi   1  
21 to think kəsianə́m   1  
21 to think ka:sianə́m   1  
94 to throw word info naqai      
94 to throw word info mwa:lín      
66 to tie up, fasten məqosi:ŋə́t      
66 to tie up, fasten mnu:túl      
8 to turn word info kəlisən   72  
8 to turn word info kmu:li:sə́ŋ   72  
35 to vomit mu:tíʔ   1  
5 to walk səma:kái   3  
5 to walk sma:qáy   3  
83 to work word info saqulíʔ   72  
83 to work word info kəlawka:wáy      
83 to work word info saharun   71  
83 to work word info sahalun   71  
47 to yawn      
32 tongue lilám   3  
32 tongue li:ɬám   3  
32 tongue lilam   3  
31 tooth baŋɣáu   34  
31 tooth bangarao   34  
31 tooth vangrao   34  
207 Twenty word info ʔuru savtín   2  
207 Twenty word info ʔuẓusaptín   2  
207 Twenty word info lusa-ptin   2  
198 Two word info rusáʔ   1  
198 Two word info ʔuẓusáʔ   1  
198 Two word info lusa   1  
198 Two word info rusa   1  
138 warm word info səmɣáŋ   84  
138 warm word info s'mzang   84  
122 water word info ranúm   1  
122 water word info ẓa:núm   1  
185 we word info ʔaytáʔ   1  
185 we word info -itaʔ   x  
185 we word info ʔaymíʔ   2  
185 we word info -imiʔ   x  
141 wet məẓi:ẓíʔ   79  
188 what? word info muniʔ      
188 what? word info nia:náʔ   42  
188 what? word info nini-wanai      
170 when? word info qonían   2?  
170 when? word info qomní: *qumana 17?  
181 where? word info ni'án   54  
181 where? word info qəni:   55  
148 white bussáɣ Kav. forms orig. marked as set 24, along with SHWNG langs. Correspondences aren't implausible (with caveat for unreliability of SHWNG v vs b transcriptions), but seems unlikely. -EG 88  
148 white bussar   88  
148 white vussar   88  
189 who? word info tia:náʔ   24  
159 wide tabbái   54  
159 wide ta:báy   54  
58 wife      
136 wind ba:riʔ   2  
136 wind vari   2  
136 wind bari   2  
100 wing pakə́z   22  
100 wing pa:kóẓ   22  
55 woman/female taẓuŋánm tarungan   97  
127 woods/forest nauna'úŋ      
107 worm (earthworm) kaurey   2  
107 worm (earthworm) kourey   2  
169 year      
150 yellow pulipuliʔ      
150 yellow paɬaɬáw   62  
150 yellow palao   62  
150 yellow mrapala      
186 you ʔaymóʔ   1  
186 you -imoʔ   x  

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