: Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Bwatoo

Source/Author:  Rivierre, Erhart, & Diela (2006) 
Notes:  RIVIERRE Jean-Claude, EHRHART Sabine, DIELA Raymond, 2006, Le bwatoo et les dialectes de la région de Koné (Nouvelle-Calédonie), Peeters : Paris-Louvain-Dudley, 501 p.

Those data available in the book of RIVIERRE & al. are based on three major sources :
- Maurice LEENHARDT's questionnaire reworked by André-Georges HAUDRICOURT; this questionnaire has been used in the village of Oundjo (1959) and Népou (1963)
- Jean-Claude RIVIERRE questionnaire used in Népou (1994)
- The results revision of the previous RIVIERRE's questionnaire by J-C. RIVERRE himself and Sabine EHRHART between 1995 and 1999 in the villages of Népou and Oundjo.

The book of RIVIERRE & al. Contains two dictionnairies.
The first one translates the bwatoo lexical items in french and provides more semantic features.
The second one translates the french lexical items in bwatoo, and provides only a translation without providing any additionnal information on the semantic features.
The second dictionnary has been used first. When there is more than one term found in bwatoo for one lexical entry in french, the first dictionnary and the developped semantic features it provides has been used to reduce as much as possible the variation and to keep the more relevant term.

Borrowings and selected data:
The lexical items selected here are coming from Jean-Claude RIVIERRE and al.
The items borrowed to other languages have not been included. For the most part, borrowings have been listed by the authors. However, the words coming from the french language have not been subject to such a list. They have been excluded by David PIEKUT when possible.

Problems:  Several lexical items refer to the same notion. When we have not been able to reduce a case of synonymy, all of the words found have been entered with specifications in the column "Author Annotation" 
Data Entry:  Typed By: David PIEKUT (EPHE/LACITO-CNRS)  Checked By:  
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:New Caledonian:Northern:North:Hmwaveke 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 


Change History:

Showing 3 of 18 entries. Show ALL logged changes


ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
175 above pwan      
191 all Ɵau      
192 and ka Used to coordinate nouns and clauses    
192 and ma Used to coordinate nouns and verbs    
192 and bwa Used for mathematical addition    
146 ash feðila      
173 at la      
13 back word info ɲaⁿdu "back" as a body part and can be used to refer say for instance "he is behind me/behind my back"    
13 back word info xu:hnan "back" and can be used for the "underneath part of a pirogue (boat)" x  
165 bad, evil te:      
14 belly ᶮjiian      
176 below ɣalan      
153 big xopwen      
97 bird ɣatee      
147 black fi:ŋ      
23 blood feⁿdat      
15 bone ⁿdu:n      
113 branch word info ⁿdiŋa:n      
18 breast tʰin   1  
56 child Ɵapia      
131 cloud word info Ɵa:te:      
131 cloud word info tʰe:ɣat      
131 cloud word info Ɵa:tʰe:      
139 cold word info xim      
166 correct, true ᶮjikiᶮju      
168 day tʰi:ɣat Also means "sun"    
10 dirty ma:ŋ,mava:ŋ "dirty" and can also be used to refer to a "fading" vegetable    
10 dirty xalat "dirty"    
10 dirty maⁿdiⁿdiŋ "grey/ashes grey" and also "dirty"    
96 dog ᶮjuuxotat      
140 dry word info ðabwat (a) The use of this word is larger then mau    
140 dry word info mau (a) This word is used for earth/soil    
140 dry word info hmau wood, coconut, plants    
140 dry word info xate:ke (a) This word is used for earth/soil    
82 dull, blunt      
11 dust hmu:do:t Properly means "dust"    
43 ear ᶮje:nan      
119 earth/soil ⁿdo:t Generally means "earth/land/soil"    
119 earth/soil bwaⁿdo:t "earth/soil as a surface"    
119 earth/soil ⁿdo:p Generally means "earth/land/soil"    
98 egg fi      
204 Eight word info nim bwa tʰien      
45 eye xupi:n      
180 far ho:t      
104 fat/grease mwana      
60 father ca:ca Polite respectful way to express the notion of "father". It tends to be replaced by papa brrowed from french.    
60 father camwan      
99 feather vu:n      
208 Fifty word info      
143 fire hmae      
143 fire mae      
111 fish ɲu      
201 Five word info nim      
116 flower mu:n      
132 fog Ɵa:hmat      
200 Four word info fae      
200 Four word info fae:      
117 fruit xapwe:n      
164 good tʰuan      
118 grass bwa:ⁿdaðila Grass with spikes    
118 grass ⁿdealetʰupila Poya village grass (Heteropogon contortus)    
118 grass fwati River grass    
151 green vuɲ      
26 hair word info vu:bwan      
1 hand өin   10  
184 he/she a      
24 head bwan      
142 heavy tʰe:      
61 house ɣamo      
194 how? word info ha:ke      
57 husband ɣaaⁿdo:mwan      
182 I ðo      
193 if cama Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
193 if celama Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
193 if ma Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
193 if mahapi This word is used to introduce a conditionnal clause    
174 in, inside ce      
174 in, inside ca      
174 in, inside ci      
16 intestines      
126 lake      
114 leaf ⁿdo:n      
2 left wala:be   32  
4 leg/foot xan   1  
135 lightning xala:t      
17 liver ɣi:n      
155 long word info xo:tan      
108 louse word info ði Meaning head louse    
54 man/male ɣau      
103 meat/flesh      
129 moon pwẽ      
109 mosquito ɣahe:t      
59 mother ɲan      
30 mouth ɲua      
63 name ðat      
158 narrow picu      
179 near Ɵaten      
25 neck ɲo      
68 needle ⁿdo:bwa The translation for "needle" in bwatoo is not clear regarding to the two dictionnaires :- Dictionnaire french-bwatto "aiguille" - doobwa- Dictionnaire bwatoo-french doobwa - "feuille"    
163 new      
167 night bwen      
205 Nine word info nim bwa fae:      
195 no, not cipa Negation generaly combined with a personnal indexation and a verb.The equivalent of "no" has not been found    
27 nose fwaⁿdin      
162 old word info xo:mu      
197 One word info Ɵa:ŋ      
197 One word info Ɵa:      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
190 other      
160 painful, sick      
53 person/human being ɣa:ᵐbuit      
133 rain ɣuta      
102 rat Ɵine      
149 red tana      
3 right ᶮjuƟi   24  
6 road/path fwa:ⁿdan Strictly means "road/path"    
6 road/path ðe:ho:t This word can be used to express road/path    
115 root wahnan      
65 rope ɣo,ɣo:t      
112 rotten word info hmwaunu Because of the humidity    
125 salt waᵑgila      
121 sand hmwean      
124 sea ɲatʰaba      
203 Seven word info nim bwa tʰalo      
81 sharp vwaɲua      
154 short word info ɲicin The difference between bieng "short in height" (a) and "short in length" (b) has not been found    
19 shoulder bwaukeƟi      
161 shy, ashamed cupunu:m      
202 Six word info nim bwa Ɵa:ŋ "five and one"    
12 skin ði:n      
128 sky ⁿdae      
152 small xuci      
145 smoke word info hmu:n      
106 snake bwiho:n (species term)    
106 snake bwaham (species term)    
110 spider ɲa:k      
130 star xafutʰiiŋ      
79 stick/wood ᵐbalatʰi:na Stricly means "piece of wood"    
120 stone vai Vai appears to be more general than va/ve.    
120 stone va Va/ve is more related to stone used as tools (as flint, to sharpen, etc.)    
120 stone ve Va/ve is more related to stone used as tools (as flint, to sharpen, etc.)    
105 tail tʰakan      
206 Ten word info ᶮjoaluƟi:ᶮje joa-lu-thii-je    
178 that      
62 thatch/roof bwaɣamo      
187 they le      
157 thick word info hnaᵐbo      
157 thick word info tʰaᵐbo      
156 thin word info ɣalaⁿdet This word seem to be general, i.e used for objects and human    
177 this      
183 thou go      
199 Three word info tʰien      
134 thunder xʷa:la      
41 to bite      
137 to blow word info Ɵiu      
28 to breathe hɲena      
144 to burn word info cini "To burn something". It can also be used to refer to the event of "frying something (a fish for instance)"    
144 to burn word info tʰuee "To burn something, to set on fire" - the meaning of this word is more general than cini    
144 to burn word info tʰimae More used nowadays    
144 to burn word info tʰihmae More used nowadays    
91 to buy feƟin "to acquire something from someone", in extension "to buy something to someone"    
91 to buy vwaƟuken "to pay" i.e "to give something in return to something received"    
38 to chew word info hma:,ma:      
85 to choose Ɵamwi      
172 to climb word info Ɵa:ta      
7 to come hme      
39 to cook word info vwaila      
196 to count fina      
34 to cry Ɵe      
78 to cut, hack word info Ɵa:i especially meat    
78 to cut, hack word info tʰabᵐbulake especially wood    
75 to die, be dead me      
90 to dig ta:      
50 to dream xanip Means "to dream (during the sleep)"    
40 to drink ɣuⁿdu      
37 to eat xʷiaman,xʷi:aman,xʷiɣaman,hwiaman      
95 to fall word info tipwa      
22 to fear famuɲima      
123 to flow Ɵe:p      
101 to fly tẽ:n      
86 to grow word info cim Generally used for vegetables    
86 to grow word info tʰit Only used for vegetables    
44 to hear mecake,macake      
171 to hide word info catihnit      
171 to hide word info tihnit      
72 to hit word info tʰake "to hit (with a weapon)", "to throw", "to shoot (with a gun)"    
72 to hit word info ɣa:ci "to hit"    
89 to hold word info ðimwi      
69 to hunt word info cafehmeⁿdo      
74 to kill ᵐbilo      
74 to kill tʰaᵐbiloke      
20 to know, be knowledgeable caihnan "to know things", "to know how to do things" and "to be used to do things"    
20 to know, be knowledgeable tahmake "to know things" and "to understand things"    
33 to laugh mwa:n      
49 to lie down word info maᶮjit      
76 to live, be alive mulit      
92 to open, uncover feƟala:m Means "to open"    
92 to open, uncover tae:n "to deploy"    
92 to open, uncover tali "to open", "to open by splitting"    
92 to open, uncover tʰaƟati "to open", "to spread", "to deploy"    
92 to open, uncover wai "to open", "to spread" (legs for instance, in a vulgar way)    
84 to plant cami      
93 to pound, beat word info caƟa      
64 to say vi      
77 to scratch word info ðua      
46 to see ɣa:ni      
67 to sew word info      
70 to shoot word info      
51 to sit ta      
48 to sleep maᶮjit      
29 to sniff, smell teten Generally means "to feel, to listen", "to hear", "to experience"This word means "to smell" when used with "odor" as it is represented below :tete boo-xaman to smell odor-something    
36 to spit tʰume      
80 to split word info cabwana This is the only item found for this event notion.Cabwana means : to separate, to break by cuting somtehing    
88 to squeeze word info fwati      
71 to stab, pierce Ɵili "to pierce"    
71 to stab, pierce tʰaⁿdua "to pierce"    
71 to stab, pierce cabulake Stab with knife    
52 to stand cu:t      
73 to steal ᵐbuna      
42 to suck tipi Means "to suck", "to lap", "to lick"    
87 to swell word info xuⁿda Means "to smell bad"    
9 to swim Ɵo:m      
21 to think ɲimake      
94 to throw word info te:ke The corresponding word in bwatoo is given with examples related to the event of "throwing an assegai"    
94 to throw word info tʰake "Throw stone"    
66 to tie up, fasten fiti Means "to fasten", "to bound"    
66 to tie up, fasten tʰa: Means "to tie up firmly", for instance "to tie up a horse to a tree'    
8 to turn word info ᵐbitake      
35 to vomit muᶮja      
5 to walk ða      
83 to work word info vaⁿdi      
47 to yawn hohaem      
32 tongue ɣupʰã      
31 tooth vaciɲuan      
207 Twenty word info ᶮjoaluƟi:ᶮje bwa ᶮjoa lu xa-ᶮje joa-lu-thii-je bwa joa lu xha-je    
207 Twenty word info ɣa:ᵐbuit Used for a one hundred franc bill    
198 Two word info tʰalo      
138 warm word info xiu      
122 water word info tʰaba      
185 we word info ᶮje (incl)    
185 we word info ᵐbe (excl)    
141 wet titi      
188 what? word info ⁿda   1  
170 when? word info ɲe:t      
181 where? word info e This word seems to be used for dynamic localisation ("where are you coming from?")    
181 where? word info kane: Those two words seem to be used for stative localisation ("where are you?")    
181 where? word info he: Those two words seem to be used for stative localisation ("where are you?")    
148 white fwa:t      
189 who? word info ⁿde      
159 wide      
58 wife mwaⁿdan      
136 wind ɣait      
100 wing vu:Ɵin      
55 woman/female tʰamo      
127 woods/forest wi      
107 worm (earthworm) ᵐbet      
169 year ᶮjo      
150 yellow kaɽi      
186 you ⁿgae      

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