: Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Bwatoo

Source/Author:  Rivierre, Erhart, & Diela (2006) 
Notes:  RIVIERRE Jean-Claude, EHRHART Sabine, DIELA Raymond, 2006, Le bwatoo et les dialectes de la région de Koné (Nouvelle-Calédonie), Peeters : Paris-Louvain-Dudley, 501 p.

Those data available in the book of RIVIERRE & al. are based on three major sources :
- Maurice LEENHARDT's questionnaire reworked by André-Georges HAUDRICOURT; this questionnaire has been used in the village of Oundjo (1959) and Népou (1963)
- Jean-Claude RIVIERRE questionnaire used in Népou (1994)
- The results revision of the previous RIVIERRE's questionnaire by J-C. RIVERRE himself and Sabine EHRHART between 1995 and 1999 in the villages of Népou and Oundjo.

The book of RIVIERRE & al. Contains two dictionnairies.
The first one translates the bwatoo lexical items in french and provides more semantic features.
The second one translates the french lexical items in bwatoo, and provides only a translation without providing any additionnal information on the semantic features.
The second dictionnary has been used first. When there is more than one term found in bwatoo for one lexical entry in french, the first dictionnary and the developped semantic features it provides has been used to reduce as much as possible the variation and to keep the more relevant term.

Borrowings and selected data:
The lexical items selected here are coming from Jean-Claude RIVIERRE and al.
The items borrowed to other languages have not been included. For the most part, borrowings have been listed by the authors. However, the words coming from the french language have not been subject to such a list. They have been excluded by David PIEKUT when possible.

Problems:  Several lexical items refer to the same notion. When we have not been able to reduce a case of synonymy, all of the words found have been entered with specifications in the column "Author Annotation" 
Data Entry:  Typed By: David PIEKUT (EPHE/LACITO-CNRS)  Checked By:  
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:New Caledonian:Northern:North:Hmwaveke 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 


Change History:

Showing 3 of 18 entries. Show ALL logged changes


ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
16 intestines      
41 to bite      
67 to sew word info      
70 to shoot word info      
82 dull, blunt      
103 meat/flesh      
126 lake      
159 wide      
160 painful, sick      
163 new      
177 this      
178 that      
190 other      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
184 he/she a      
192 and bwa Used for mathematical addition    
118 grass bwa:ⁿdaðila Grass with spikes    
106 snake bwaham (species term)    
24 head bwan      
19 shoulder bwaukeƟi      
62 thatch/roof bwaɣamo      
119 earth/soil bwaⁿdo:t "earth/soil as a surface"    
167 night bwen      
106 snake bwiho:n (species term)    
174 in, inside ca      
60 father ca:ca Polite respectful way to express the notion of "father". It tends to be replaced by papa brrowed from french.    
71 to stab, pierce cabulake Stab with knife    
80 to split word info cabwana This is the only item found for this event notion.Cabwana means : to separate, to break by cuting somtehing    
69 to hunt word info cafehmeⁿdo      
20 to know, be knowledgeable caihnan "to know things", "to know how to do things" and "to be used to do things"    
193 if cama Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
84 to plant cami      
60 father camwan      
171 to hide word info catihnit      
93 to pound, beat word info caƟa      
174 in, inside ce      
193 if celama Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
174 in, inside ci      
86 to grow word info cim Generally used for vegetables    
144 to burn word info cini "To burn something". It can also be used to refer to the event of "frying something (a fish for instance)"    
195 no, not cipa Negation generaly combined with a personnal indexation and a verb.The equivalent of "no" has not been found    
52 to stand cu:t      
161 shy, ashamed cupunu:m      
181 where? word info e This word seems to be used for dynamic localisation ("where are you coming from?")    
200 Four word info fae      
200 Four word info fae:      
22 to fear famuɲima      
146 ash feðila      
92 to open, uncover feƟala:m Means "to open"    
91 to buy feƟin "to acquire something from someone", in extension "to buy something to someone"    
23 blood feⁿdat      
98 egg fi      
147 black fi:ŋ      
196 to count fina      
66 to tie up, fasten fiti Means "to fasten", "to bound"    
148 white fwa:t      
6 road/path fwa:ⁿdan Strictly means "road/path"    
88 to squeeze word info fwati      
118 grass fwati River grass    
27 nose fwaⁿdin      
194 how? word info ha:ke      
181 where? word info he: Those two words seem to be used for stative localisation ("where are you?")    
38 to chew word info hma:,ma:      
143 fire hmae      
140 dry word info hmau wood, coconut, plants    
7 to come hme      
11 dust hmu:do:t Properly means "dust"    
145 smoke word info hmu:n      
112 rotten word info hmwaunu Because of the humidity    
121 sand hmwean      
157 thick word info hnaᵐbo      
180 far ho:t      
47 to yawn hohaem      
28 to breathe hɲena      
192 and ka Used to coordinate nouns and clauses    
181 where? word info kane: Those two words seem to be used for stative localisation ("where are you?")    
150 yellow kaɽi      
173 at la      
187 they le      
192 and ma Used to coordinate nouns and verbs    
193 if ma Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
10 dirty ma:ŋ,mava:ŋ "dirty" and can also be used to refer to a "fading" vegetable    
143 fire mae      
193 if mahapi This word is used to introduce a conditionnal clause    
140 dry word info mau (a) This word is used for earth/soil    
48 to sleep maᶮjit      
49 to lie down word info maᶮjit      
10 dirty maⁿdiⁿdiŋ "grey/ashes grey" and also "dirty"    
75 to die, be dead me      
44 to hear mecake,macake      
116 flower mu:n      
76 to live, be alive mulit      
35 to vomit muᶮja      
33 to laugh mwa:n      
104 fat/grease mwana      
58 wife mwaⁿdan      
201 Five word info nim      
205 Nine word info nim bwa fae:      
203 Seven word info nim bwa tʰalo      
204 Eight word info nim bwa tʰien      
202 Six word info nim bwa Ɵa:ŋ "five and one"    
158 narrow picu      
175 above pwan      
129 moon pwẽ      
51 to sit ta      
90 to dig ta:      
92 to open, uncover tae:n "to deploy"    
20 to know, be knowledgeable tahmake "to know things" and "to understand things"    
92 to open, uncover tali "to open", "to open by splitting"    
149 red tana      
165 bad, evil te:      
94 to throw word info te:ke The corresponding word in bwatoo is given with examples related to the event of "throwing an assegai"    
29 to sniff, smell teten Generally means "to feel, to listen", "to hear", "to experience"This word means "to smell" when used with "odor" as it is represented below :tete boo-xaman to smell odor-something    
101 to fly tẽ:n      
171 to hide word info tihnit      
42 to suck tipi Means "to suck", "to lap", "to lick"    
95 to fall word info tipwa      
141 wet titi      
66 to tie up, fasten tʰa: Means "to tie up firmly", for instance "to tie up a horse to a tree'    
122 water word info tʰaba      
78 to cut, hack word info tʰabᵐbulake especially wood    
105 tail tʰakan      
72 to hit word info tʰake "to hit (with a weapon)", "to throw", "to shoot (with a gun)"    
94 to throw word info tʰake "Throw stone"    
198 Two word info tʰalo      
55 woman/female tʰamo      
92 to open, uncover tʰaƟati "to open", "to spread", "to deploy"    
74 to kill tʰaᵐbiloke      
157 thick word info tʰaᵐbo      
71 to stab, pierce tʰaⁿdua "to pierce"    
142 heavy tʰe:      
131 cloud word info tʰe:ɣat      
168 day tʰi:ɣat Also means "sun"    
199 Three word info tʰien      
144 to burn word info tʰihmae More used nowadays    
144 to burn word info tʰimae More used nowadays    
18 breast tʰin   1  
86 to grow word info tʰit Only used for vegetables    
164 good tʰuan      
144 to burn word info tʰuee "To burn something, to set on fire" - the meaning of this word is more general than cini    
36 to spit tʰume      
120 stone va Va/ve is more related to stone used as tools (as flint, to sharpen, etc.)    
31 tooth vaciɲuan      
120 stone vai Vai appears to be more general than va/ve.    
83 to work word info vaⁿdi      
120 stone ve Va/ve is more related to stone used as tools (as flint, to sharpen, etc.)    
64 to say vi      
26 hair word info vu:bwan      
99 feather vu:n      
100 wing vu:Ɵin      
151 green vuɲ      
39 to cook word info vwaila      
91 to buy vwaƟuken "to pay" i.e "to give something in return to something received"    
81 sharp vwaɲua      
115 root wahnan      
92 to open, uncover wai "to open", "to spread" (legs for instance, in a vulgar way)    
2 left wala:be   32  
125 salt waᵑgila      
127 woods/forest wi      
130 star xafutʰiiŋ      
135 lightning xala:t      
10 dirty xalat "dirty"    
4 leg/foot xan   1  
50 to dream xanip Means "to dream (during the sleep)"    
117 fruit xapwe:n      
140 dry word info xate:ke (a) This word is used for earth/soil    
139 cold word info xim      
138 warm word info xiu      
162 old word info xo:mu      
155 long word info xo:tan      
153 big xopwen      
13 back word info xu:hnan "back" and can be used for the "underneath part of a pirogue (boat)" x  
152 small xuci      
45 eye xupi:n      
87 to swell word info xuⁿda Means "to smell bad"    
134 thunder xʷa:la      
37 to eat xʷiaman,xʷi:aman,xʷiɣaman,hwiaman      
5 to walk ða      
140 dry word info ðabwat (a) The use of this word is larger then mau    
63 name ðat      
6 road/path ðe:ho:t This word can be used to express road/path    
108 louse word info ði Meaning head louse    
12 skin ði:n      
89 to hold word info ðimwi      
182 I ðo      
77 to scratch word info ðua      
197 One word info Ɵa:      
132 fog Ɵa:hmat      
78 to cut, hack word info Ɵa:i especially meat    
172 to climb word info Ɵa:ta      
131 cloud word info Ɵa:te:      
131 cloud word info Ɵa:tʰe:      
197 One word info Ɵa:ŋ      
85 to choose Ɵamwi      
56 child Ɵapia      
179 near Ɵaten      
191 all Ɵau      
34 to cry Ɵe      
123 to flow Ɵe:p      
71 to stab, pierce Ɵili "to pierce"    
102 rat Ɵine      
137 to blow word info Ɵiu      
9 to swim Ɵo:m      
72 to hit word info ɣa:ci "to hit"    
46 to see ɣa:ni      
53 person/human being ɣa:ᵐbuit      
207 Twenty word info ɣa:ᵐbuit Used for a one hundred franc bill    
57 husband ɣaaⁿdo:mwan      
109 mosquito ɣahe:t      
136 wind ɣait      
176 below ɣalan      
156 thin word info ɣalaⁿdet This word seem to be general, i.e used for objects and human    
61 house ɣamo      
97 bird ɣatee      
54 man/male ɣau      
17 liver ɣi:n      
65 rope ɣo,ɣo:t      
32 tongue ɣupʰã      
133 rain ɣuta      
40 to drink ɣuⁿdu      
110 spider ɲa:k      
59 mother ɲan      
124 sea ɲatʰaba      
13 back word info ɲaⁿdu "back" as a body part and can be used to refer say for instance "he is behind me/behind my back"    
170 when? word info ɲe:t      
154 short word info ɲicin The difference between bieng "short in height" (a) and "short in length" (b) has not been found    
21 to think ɲimake      
25 neck ɲo      
111 fish ɲu      
30 mouth ɲua      
1 hand өin   10  
79 stick/wood ᵐbalatʰi:na Stricly means "piece of wood"    
185 we word info ᵐbe (excl)    
107 worm (earthworm) ᵐbet      
74 to kill ᵐbilo      
8 to turn word info ᵐbitake      
73 to steal ᵐbuna      
185 we word info ᶮje (incl)    
43 ear ᶮje:nan      
14 belly ᶮjiian      
166 correct, true ᶮjikiᶮju      
169 year ᶮjo      
206 Ten word info ᶮjoaluƟi:ᶮje joa-lu-thii-je    
207 Twenty word info ᶮjoaluƟi:ᶮje bwa ᶮjoa lu xa-ᶮje joa-lu-thii-je bwa joa lu xha-je    
96 dog ᶮjuuxotat      
3 right ᶮjuƟi   24  
188 what? word info ⁿda   1  
128 sky ⁿdae      
189 who? word info ⁿde      
118 grass ⁿdealetʰupila Poya village grass (Heteropogon contortus)    
113 branch word info ⁿdiŋa:n      
68 needle ⁿdo:bwa The translation for "needle" in bwatoo is not clear regarding to the two dictionnaires :- Dictionnaire french-bwatto "aiguille" - doobwa- Dictionnaire bwatoo-french doobwa - "feuille"    
114 leaf ⁿdo:n      
119 earth/soil ⁿdo:p Generally means "earth/land/soil"    
119 earth/soil ⁿdo:t Generally means "earth/land/soil"    
15 bone ⁿdu:n      
186 you ⁿgae      
183 thou go      

Seen an error? Please let us know:

Save Data: