: Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Bwatoo

Source/Author:  Rivierre, Erhart, & Diela (2006) 
Notes:  RIVIERRE Jean-Claude, EHRHART Sabine, DIELA Raymond, 2006, Le bwatoo et les dialectes de la région de Koné (Nouvelle-Calédonie), Peeters : Paris-Louvain-Dudley, 501 p.

Those data available in the book of RIVIERRE & al. are based on three major sources :
- Maurice LEENHARDT's questionnaire reworked by André-Georges HAUDRICOURT; this questionnaire has been used in the village of Oundjo (1959) and Népou (1963)
- Jean-Claude RIVIERRE questionnaire used in Népou (1994)
- The results revision of the previous RIVIERRE's questionnaire by J-C. RIVERRE himself and Sabine EHRHART between 1995 and 1999 in the villages of Népou and Oundjo.

The book of RIVIERRE & al. Contains two dictionnairies.
The first one translates the bwatoo lexical items in french and provides more semantic features.
The second one translates the french lexical items in bwatoo, and provides only a translation without providing any additionnal information on the semantic features.
The second dictionnary has been used first. When there is more than one term found in bwatoo for one lexical entry in french, the first dictionnary and the developped semantic features it provides has been used to reduce as much as possible the variation and to keep the more relevant term.

Borrowings and selected data:
The lexical items selected here are coming from Jean-Claude RIVIERRE and al.
The items borrowed to other languages have not been included. For the most part, borrowings have been listed by the authors. However, the words coming from the french language have not been subject to such a list. They have been excluded by David PIEKUT when possible.

Problems:  Several lexical items refer to the same notion. When we have not been able to reduce a case of synonymy, all of the words found have been entered with specifications in the column "Author Annotation" 
Data Entry:  Typed By: David PIEKUT (EPHE/LACITO-CNRS)  Checked By:  
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:New Caledonian:Northern:North:Hmwaveke 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 


Change History:

Showing 3 of 18 entries. Show ALL logged changes


ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
16 intestines      
41 to bite      
67 to sew word info      
70 to shoot word info      
82 dull, blunt      
103 meat/flesh      
126 lake      
159 wide      
160 painful, sick      
163 new      
177 this      
178 that      
190 other      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
1 hand өin   10  
2 left wala:be   32  
3 right ᶮjuƟi   24  
4 leg/foot xan   1  
5 to walk ða      
7 to come hme      
8 to turn word info ᵐbitake      
9 to swim Ɵo:m      
12 skin ði:n      
14 belly ᶮjiian      
15 bone ⁿdu:n      
17 liver ɣi:n      
18 breast tʰin   1  
19 shoulder bwaukeƟi      
21 to think ɲimake      
22 to fear famuɲima      
23 blood feⁿdat      
24 head bwan      
25 neck ɲo      
26 hair word info vu:bwan      
27 nose fwaⁿdin      
28 to breathe hɲena      
30 mouth ɲua      
31 tooth vaciɲuan      
32 tongue ɣupʰã      
33 to laugh mwa:n      
34 to cry Ɵe      
35 to vomit muᶮja      
36 to spit tʰume      
37 to eat xʷiaman,xʷi:aman,xʷiɣaman,hwiaman      
38 to chew word info hma:,ma:      
39 to cook word info vwaila      
40 to drink ɣuⁿdu      
43 ear ᶮje:nan      
44 to hear mecake,macake      
45 eye xupi:n      
46 to see ɣa:ni      
47 to yawn hohaem      
48 to sleep maᶮjit      
49 to lie down word info maᶮjit      
51 to sit ta      
52 to stand cu:t      
53 person/human being ɣa:ᵐbuit      
54 man/male ɣau      
55 woman/female tʰamo      
56 child Ɵapia      
57 husband ɣaaⁿdo:mwan      
58 wife mwaⁿdan      
59 mother ɲan      
60 father camwan      
61 house ɣamo      
62 thatch/roof bwaɣamo      
63 name ðat      
64 to say vi      
65 rope ɣo,ɣo:t      
69 to hunt word info cafehmeⁿdo      
73 to steal ᵐbuna      
74 to kill ᵐbilo      
74 to kill tʰaᵐbiloke      
75 to die, be dead me      
76 to live, be alive mulit      
77 to scratch word info ðua      
81 sharp vwaɲua      
83 to work word info vaⁿdi      
84 to plant cami      
85 to choose Ɵamwi      
88 to squeeze word info fwati      
89 to hold word info ðimwi      
90 to dig ta:      
93 to pound, beat word info caƟa      
95 to fall word info tipwa      
96 dog ᶮjuuxotat      
97 bird ɣatee      
98 egg fi      
99 feather vu:n      
100 wing vu:Ɵin      
101 to fly tẽ:n      
102 rat Ɵine      
104 fat/grease mwana      
105 tail tʰakan      
107 worm (earthworm) ᵐbet      
109 mosquito ɣahe:t      
110 spider ɲa:k      
111 fish ɲu      
113 branch word info ⁿdiŋa:n      
114 leaf ⁿdo:n      
115 root wahnan      
116 flower mu:n      
117 fruit xapwe:n      
121 sand hmwean      
122 water word info tʰaba      
123 to flow Ɵe:p      
124 sea ɲatʰaba      
125 salt waᵑgila      
127 woods/forest wi      
128 sky ⁿdae      
129 moon pwẽ      
130 star xafutʰiiŋ      
131 cloud word info Ɵa:te:      
131 cloud word info tʰe:ɣat      
131 cloud word info Ɵa:tʰe:      
132 fog Ɵa:hmat      
133 rain ɣuta      
134 thunder xʷa:la      
135 lightning xala:t      
136 wind ɣait      
137 to blow word info Ɵiu      
138 warm word info xiu      
139 cold word info xim      
141 wet titi      
142 heavy tʰe:      
143 fire hmae      
143 fire mae      
145 smoke word info hmu:n      
146 ash feðila      
147 black fi:ŋ      
148 white fwa:t      
149 red tana      
150 yellow kaɽi      
151 green vuɲ      
152 small xuci      
153 big xopwen      
155 long word info xo:tan      
157 thick word info hnaᵐbo      
157 thick word info tʰaᵐbo      
158 narrow picu      
161 shy, ashamed cupunu:m      
162 old word info xo:mu      
164 good tʰuan      
165 bad, evil te:      
166 correct, true ᶮjikiᶮju      
167 night bwen      
169 year ᶮjo      
170 when? word info ɲe:t      
171 to hide word info catihnit      
171 to hide word info tihnit      
172 to climb word info Ɵa:ta      
173 at la      
174 in, inside ce      
174 in, inside ca      
174 in, inside ci      
175 above pwan      
176 below ɣalan      
179 near Ɵaten      
180 far ho:t      
182 I ðo      
183 thou go      
184 he/she a      
186 you ⁿgae      
187 they le      
188 what? word info ⁿda   1  
189 who? word info ⁿde      
191 all Ɵau      
194 how? word info ha:ke      
196 to count fina      
197 One word info Ɵa:ŋ      
197 One word info Ɵa:      
198 Two word info tʰalo      
199 Three word info tʰien      
200 Four word info fae      
200 Four word info fae:      
201 Five word info nim      
203 Seven word info nim bwa tʰalo      
204 Eight word info nim bwa tʰien      
205 Nine word info nim bwa fae:      
13 back word info xu:hnan "back" and can be used for the "underneath part of a pirogue (boat)" x  
13 back word info ɲaⁿdu "back" as a body part and can be used to refer say for instance "he is behind me/behind my back"    
10 dirty xalat "dirty"    
10 dirty ma:ŋ,mava:ŋ "dirty" and can also be used to refer to a "fading" vegetable    
119 earth/soil bwaⁿdo:t "earth/soil as a surface"    
202 Six word info nim bwa Ɵa:ŋ "five and one"    
10 dirty maⁿdiⁿdiŋ "grey/ashes grey" and also "dirty"    
94 to throw word info tʰake "Throw stone"    
91 to buy feƟin "to acquire something from someone", in extension "to buy something to someone"    
144 to burn word info cini "To burn something". It can also be used to refer to the event of "frying something (a fish for instance)"    
144 to burn word info tʰuee "To burn something, to set on fire" - the meaning of this word is more general than cini    
92 to open, uncover tae:n "to deploy"    
72 to hit word info tʰake "to hit (with a weapon)", "to throw", "to shoot (with a gun)"    
72 to hit word info ɣa:ci "to hit"    
20 to know, be knowledgeable tahmake "to know things" and "to understand things"    
20 to know, be knowledgeable caihnan "to know things", "to know how to do things" and "to be used to do things"    
92 to open, uncover tali "to open", "to open by splitting"    
92 to open, uncover wai "to open", "to spread" (legs for instance, in a vulgar way)    
92 to open, uncover tʰaƟati "to open", "to spread", "to deploy"    
91 to buy vwaƟuken "to pay" i.e "to give something in return to something received"    
71 to stab, pierce Ɵili "to pierce"    
71 to stab, pierce tʰaⁿdua "to pierce"    
140 dry word info ðabwat (a) The use of this word is larger then mau    
140 dry word info mau (a) This word is used for earth/soil    
140 dry word info xate:ke (a) This word is used for earth/soil    
185 we word info ᵐbe (excl)    
185 we word info ᶮje (incl)    
106 snake bwiho:n (species term)    
106 snake bwaham (species term)    
168 day tʰi:ɣat Also means "sun"    
112 rotten word info hmwaunu Because of the humidity    
78 to cut, hack word info Ɵa:i especially meat    
78 to cut, hack word info tʰabᵐbulake especially wood    
119 earth/soil ⁿdo:t Generally means "earth/land/soil"    
119 earth/soil ⁿdo:p Generally means "earth/land/soil"    
29 to sniff, smell teten Generally means "to feel, to listen", "to hear", "to experience"This word means "to smell" when used with "odor" as it is represented below :tete boo-xaman to smell odor-something    
86 to grow word info cim Generally used for vegetables    
118 grass bwa:ⁿdaðila Grass with spikes    
206 Ten word info ᶮjoaluƟi:ᶮje joa-lu-thii-je    
207 Twenty word info ᶮjoaluƟi:ᶮje bwa ᶮjoa lu xa-ᶮje joa-lu-thii-je bwa joa lu xha-je    
108 louse word info ði Meaning head louse    
50 to dream xanip Means "to dream (during the sleep)"    
66 to tie up, fasten fiti Means "to fasten", "to bound"    
92 to open, uncover feƟala:m Means "to open"    
87 to swell word info xuⁿda Means "to smell bad"    
42 to suck tipi Means "to suck", "to lap", "to lick"    
66 to tie up, fasten tʰa: Means "to tie up firmly", for instance "to tie up a horse to a tree'    
144 to burn word info tʰimae More used nowadays    
144 to burn word info tʰihmae More used nowadays    
195 no, not cipa Negation generaly combined with a personnal indexation and a verb.The equivalent of "no" has not been found    
86 to grow word info tʰit Only used for vegetables    
60 father ca:ca Polite respectful way to express the notion of "father". It tends to be replaced by papa brrowed from french.    
118 grass ⁿdealetʰupila Poya village grass (Heteropogon contortus)    
11 dust hmu:do:t Properly means "dust"    
118 grass fwati River grass    
71 to stab, pierce cabulake Stab with knife    
79 stick/wood ᵐbalatʰi:na Stricly means "piece of wood"    
6 road/path fwa:ⁿdan Strictly means "road/path"    
94 to throw word info te:ke The corresponding word in bwatoo is given with examples related to the event of "throwing an assegai"    
154 short word info ɲicin The difference between bieng "short in height" (a) and "short in length" (b) has not been found    
68 needle ⁿdo:bwa The translation for "needle" in bwatoo is not clear regarding to the two dictionnaires :- Dictionnaire french-bwatto "aiguille" - doobwa- Dictionnaire bwatoo-french doobwa - "feuille"    
80 to split word info cabwana This is the only item found for this event notion.Cabwana means : to separate, to break by cuting somtehing    
6 road/path ðe:ho:t This word can be used to express road/path    
193 if mahapi This word is used to introduce a conditionnal clause    
156 thin word info ɣalaⁿdet This word seem to be general, i.e used for objects and human    
181 where? word info e This word seems to be used for dynamic localisation ("where are you coming from?")    
181 where? word info kane: Those two words seem to be used for stative localisation ("where are you?")    
181 where? word info he: Those two words seem to be used for stative localisation ("where are you?")    
193 if cama Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
193 if celama Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
193 if ma Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
207 Twenty word info ɣa:ᵐbuit Used for a one hundred franc bill    
192 and bwa Used for mathematical addition    
192 and ka Used to coordinate nouns and clauses    
192 and ma Used to coordinate nouns and verbs    
120 stone va Va/ve is more related to stone used as tools (as flint, to sharpen, etc.)    
120 stone ve Va/ve is more related to stone used as tools (as flint, to sharpen, etc.)    
120 stone vai Vai appears to be more general than va/ve.    
140 dry word info hmau wood, coconut, plants    

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