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Language: Bwatoo

Source/Author:  Rivierre, Erhart, & Diela (2006) 
Notes:  RIVIERRE Jean-Claude, EHRHART Sabine, DIELA Raymond, 2006, Le bwatoo et les dialectes de la région de Koné (Nouvelle-Calédonie), Peeters : Paris-Louvain-Dudley, 501 p.

Sources:
Those data available in the book of RIVIERRE & al. are based on three major sources :
- Maurice LEENHARDT's questionnaire reworked by André-Georges HAUDRICOURT; this questionnaire has been used in the village of Oundjo (1959) and Népou (1963)
- Jean-Claude RIVIERRE questionnaire used in Népou (1994)
- The results revision of the previous RIVIERRE's questionnaire by J-C. RIVERRE himself and Sabine EHRHART between 1995 and 1999 in the villages of Népou and Oundjo.

Methodology:
The book of RIVIERRE & al. Contains two dictionnairies.
The first one translates the bwatoo lexical items in french and provides more semantic features.
The second one translates the french lexical items in bwatoo, and provides only a translation without providing any additionnal information on the semantic features.
The second dictionnary has been used first. When there is more than one term found in bwatoo for one lexical entry in french, the first dictionnary and the developped semantic features it provides has been used to reduce as much as possible the variation and to keep the more relevant term.

Borrowings and selected data:
The lexical items selected here are coming from Jean-Claude RIVIERRE and al.
The items borrowed to other languages have not been included. For the most part, borrowings have been listed by the authors. However, the words coming from the french language have not been subject to such a list. They have been excluded by David PIEKUT when possible.

 
Problems:  Several lexical items refer to the same notion. When we have not been able to reduce a case of synonymy, all of the words found have been entered with specifications in the column "Author Annotation" 
Data Entry:  Typed By: David PIEKUT (EPHE/LACITO-CNRS)  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:New Caledonian:Northern:North:Hmwaveke 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 17 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand өin      
2 left wala:be      
3 right ᶮjuƟi      
4 leg/foot xan      
5 to walk ða      
6 road/path fwa:ⁿdan Strictly means "road/path"    
6 road/path ðe:ho:t This word can be used to express road/path    
7 to come hme      
8 to turn word info ᵐbitake      
9 to swim Ɵo:m      
10 dirty ma:ŋ,mava:ŋ "dirty" and can also be used to refer to a "fading" vegetable    
10 dirty xalat "dirty"    
10 dirty maⁿdiⁿdiŋ "grey/ashes grey" and also "dirty"    
11 dust hmu:do:t Properly means "dust"    
12 skin ði:n      
13 back word info ɲaⁿdu "back" as a body part and can be used to refer say for instance "he is behind me/behind my back"    
13 back word info xu:hnan "back" and can be used for the "underneath part of a pirogue (boat)" x  
14 belly ᶮjiian      
15 bone ⁿdu:n      
16 intestines      
17 liver ɣi:n      
18 breast tʰin      
19 shoulder bwaukeƟi      
20 to know, be knowledgeable caihnan "to know things", "to know how to do things" and "to be used to do things"    
20 to know, be knowledgeable tahmake "to know things" and "to understand things"    
21 to think ɲimake      
22 to fear famuɲima      
23 blood feⁿdat      
24 head bwan      
25 neck ɲo      
26 hair word info vu:bwan      
27 nose fwaⁿdin      
28 to breathe hɲena      
29 to sniff, smell teten Generally means "to feel, to listen", "to hear", "to experience"This word means "to smell" when used with "odor" as it is represented below :tete boo-xaman to smell odor-something    
30 mouth ɲua      
31 tooth vaciɲuan      
32 tongue ɣupʰã      
33 to laugh mwa:n      
34 to cry Ɵe      
35 to vomit muᶮja      
36 to spit tʰume      
37 to eat xʷiaman,xʷi:aman,xʷiɣaman,hwiaman      
38 to chew word info hma:,ma:      
39 to cook word info vwaila      
40 to drink ɣuⁿdu      
41 to bite      
42 to suck tipi Means "to suck", "to lap", "to lick"    
43 ear ᶮje:nan      
44 to hear mecake,macake      
45 eye xupi:n      
46 to see ɣa:ni      
47 to yawn hohaem      
48 to sleep maᶮjit      
49 to lie down word info maᶮjit      
50 to dream xanip Means "to dream (during the sleep)"    
51 to sit ta      
52 to stand cu:t      
53 person/human being ɣa:ᵐbuit      
54 man/male ɣau      
55 woman/female tʰamo      
56 child Ɵapia      
57 husband ɣaaⁿdo:mwan      
58 wife mwaⁿdan      
59 mother ɲan      
60 father ca:ca Polite respectful way to express the notion of "father". It tends to be replaced by papa brrowed from french.    
60 father camwan      
61 house ɣamo      
62 thatch/roof bwaɣamo      
63 name ðat      
64 to say vi      
65 rope ɣo,ɣo:t      
66 to tie up, fasten fiti Means "to fasten", "to bound"    
66 to tie up, fasten tʰa: Means "to tie up firmly", for instance "to tie up a horse to a tree'    
67 to sew word info      
68 needle ⁿdo:bwa The translation for "needle" in bwatoo is not clear regarding to the two dictionnaires :- Dictionnaire french-bwatto "aiguille" - doobwa- Dictionnaire bwatoo-french doobwa - "feuille"    
69 to hunt word info cafehmeⁿdo      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce Ɵili "to pierce"    
71 to stab, pierce tʰaⁿdua "to pierce"    
71 to stab, pierce cabulake Stab with knife    
72 to hit word info tʰake "to hit (with a weapon)", "to throw", "to shoot (with a gun)"    
72 to hit word info ɣa:ci "to hit"    
73 to steal ᵐbuna      
74 to kill ᵐbilo      
74 to kill tʰaᵐbiloke      
75 to die, be dead me      
76 to live, be alive mulit      
77 to scratch word info ðua      
78 to cut, hack word info Ɵa:i especially meat    
78 to cut, hack word info tʰabᵐbulake especially wood    
79 stick/wood ᵐbalatʰi:na Stricly means "piece of wood"    
80 to split word info cabwana This is the only item found for this event notion.Cabwana means : to separate, to break by cuting somtehing    
81 sharp vwaɲua      
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info vaⁿdi      
84 to plant cami      
85 to choose Ɵamwi      
86 to grow word info cim Generally used for vegetables    
86 to grow word info tʰit Only used for vegetables    
87 to swell word info xuⁿda Means "to smell bad"    
88 to squeeze word info fwati      
89 to hold word info ðimwi      
90 to dig ta:      
91 to buy feƟin "to acquire something from someone", in extension "to buy something to someone"    
91 to buy vwaƟuken "to pay" i.e "to give something in return to something received"    
92 to open, uncover feƟala:m Means "to open"    
92 to open, uncover tae:n "to deploy"    
92 to open, uncover tali "to open", "to open by splitting"    
92 to open, uncover tʰaƟati "to open", "to spread", "to deploy"    
92 to open, uncover wai "to open", "to spread" (legs for instance, in a vulgar way)    
93 to pound, beat word info caƟa      
94 to throw word info te:ke The corresponding word in bwatoo is given with examples related to the event of "throwing an assegai"    
94 to throw word info tʰake "Throw stone"    
95 to fall word info tipwa      
96 dog ᶮjuuxotat      
97 bird ɣatee      
98 egg fi      
99 feather vu:n      
100 wing vu:Ɵin      
101 to fly tẽ:n      
102 rat Ɵine      
103 meat/flesh      
104 fat/grease mwana      
105 tail tʰakan      
106 snake bwiho:n (species term)    
106 snake bwaham (species term)    
107 worm (earthworm) ᵐbet      
108 louse word info ði Meaning head louse    
109 mosquito ɣahe:t      
110 spider ɲa:k      
111 fish ɲu      
112 rotten word info hmwaunu Because of the humidity    
113 branch word info ⁿdiŋa:n      
114 leaf ⁿdo:n      
115 root wahnan      
116 flower mu:n      
117 fruit xapwe:n      
118 grass bwa:ⁿdaðila Grass with spikes    
118 grass ⁿdealetʰupila Poya village grass (Heteropogon contortus)    
118 grass fwati River grass    
119 earth/soil ⁿdo:t Generally means "earth/land/soil"    
119 earth/soil bwaⁿdo:t "earth/soil as a surface"    
119 earth/soil ⁿdo:p Generally means "earth/land/soil"    
120 stone vai Vai appears to be more general than va/ve.    
120 stone va Va/ve is more related to stone used as tools (as flint, to sharpen, etc.)    
120 stone ve Va/ve is more related to stone used as tools (as flint, to sharpen, etc.)    
121 sand hmwean      
122 water word info tʰaba      
123 to flow Ɵe:p      
124 sea ɲatʰaba      
125 salt waᵑgila      
126 lake      
127 woods/forest wi      
128 sky ⁿdae      
129 moon pwẽ      
130 star xafutʰiiŋ      
131 cloud word info Ɵa:te:      
131 cloud word info tʰe:ɣat      
131 cloud word info Ɵa:tʰe:      
132 fog Ɵa:hmat      
133 rain ɣuta      
134 thunder xʷa:la      
135 lightning xala:t      
136 wind ɣait      
137 to blow word info Ɵiu      
138 warm word info xiu      
139 cold word info xim      
140 dry word info ðabwat (a) The use of this word is larger then mau    
140 dry word info mau (a) This word is used for earth/soil    
140 dry word info hmau wood, coconut, plants    
140 dry word info xate:ke (a) This word is used for earth/soil    
141 wet titi      
142 heavy tʰe:      
143 fire hmae      
143 fire mae      
144 to burn word info cini "To burn something". It can also be used to refer to the event of "frying something (a fish for instance)"    
144 to burn word info tʰuee "To burn something, to set on fire" - the meaning of this word is more general than cini    
144 to burn word info tʰimae More used nowadays    
144 to burn word info tʰihmae More used nowadays    
145 smoke word info hmu:n      
146 ash feðila      
147 black fi:ŋ      
148 white fwa:t      
149 red tana      
150 yellow kaɽi      
151 green vuɲ      
152 small xuci      
153 big xopwen      
154 short word info ɲicin The difference between bieng "short in height" (a) and "short in length" (b) has not been found    
155 long word info xo:tan      
156 thin word info ɣalaⁿdet This word seem to be general, i.e used for objects and human    
157 thick word info hnaᵐbo      
157 thick word info tʰaᵐbo      
158 narrow picu      
159 wide      
160 painful, sick      
161 shy, ashamed cupunu:m      
162 old word info xo:mu      
163 new      
164 good tʰuan      
165 bad, evil te:      
166 correct, true ᶮjikiᶮju      
167 night bwen      
168 day tʰi:ɣat Also means "sun"    
169 year ᶮjo      
170 when? word info ɲe:t      
171 to hide word info catihnit      
171 to hide word info tihnit      
172 to climb word info Ɵa:ta      
173 at la      
174 in, inside ce      
174 in, inside ca      
174 in, inside ci      
175 above pwan      
176 below ɣalan      
177 this      
178 that      
179 near Ɵaten      
180 far ho:t      
181 where? word info e This word seems to be used for dynamic localisation ("where are you coming from?")    
181 where? word info kane: Those two words seem to be used for stative localisation ("where are you?")    
181 where? word info he: Those two words seem to be used for stative localisation ("where are you?")    
182 I ðo      
183 thou go      
184 he/she a      
185 we word info ᶮje (incl)    
185 we word info ᵐbe (excl)    
186 you ⁿgae      
187 they le      
188 what? word info ⁿda      
189 who? word info ⁿde      
190 other      
191 all Ɵau      
192 and ka Used to coordinate nouns and clauses    
192 and ma Used to coordinate nouns and verbs    
192 and bwa Used for mathematical addition    
193 if cama Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
193 if celama Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
193 if ma Those words are used to introduce a temporal-conditionnal clause    
193 if mahapi This word is used to introduce a conditionnal clause    
194 how? word info ha:ke      
195 no, not cipa Negation generaly combined with a personnal indexation and a verb.The equivalent of "no" has not been found    
196 to count fina      
197 One word info Ɵa:ŋ      
197 One word info Ɵa:      
198 Two word info tʰalo      
199 Three word info tʰien      
200 Four word info fae      
200 Four word info fae:      
201 Five word info nim      
202 Six word info nim bwa Ɵa:ŋ "five and one"    
203 Seven word info nim bwa tʰalo      
204 Eight word info nim bwa tʰien      
205 Nine word info nim bwa fae:      
206 Ten word info ᶮjoaluƟi:ᶮje joa-lu-thii-je    
207 Twenty word info ᶮjoaluƟi:ᶮje bwa ᶮjoa lu xa-ᶮje joa-lu-thii-je bwa joa lu xha-je    
207 Twenty word info ɣa:ᵐbuit Used for a one hundred franc bill    
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      

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