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Language: Proto Malagasy

Source/Author:  Sander Adelaar 
Notes:  Two stages can be distinguished for Proto Malagasy: PMLG1 (just before the migrations of Southeast Barito speakers to East Africa); PMLG2 (language ancestral to current MLG dialects; shows a Bantu substratum + Bantu loanwords). The current list represents MLG2. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Sander Adelaar  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Greater Barito:East:Malagasy 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 40 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
4 leg/foot      
21 to think      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
72 to hit word info      
96 dog      
110 spider      
124 sea      
126 lake      
150 yellow      
178 that      
179 near      
1 hand *taŋan   18  
2 left *hawia[n]   1, 42  
3 right *hawanan   1, 62  
5 to walk *mandeha *man- + *leha 61  
6 road/path *lalan   1  
7 to come *awe   70  
8 to turn word info *kuliŋ   96  
9 to swim *mi-laŋu   1  
10 dirty *ma-lutu < S.Sulawesi 108  
11 dust *wuwuk   56  
12 skin *hulit   1  
13 back word info *talukut reflex talutukŭ found in Sorabe literature 1  
14 belly *Duuk ? 31  
15 bone *taulaŋ   1  
16 intestines *tinai   1  
17 liver *ate   1  
18 breast *nunu   3  
19 shoulder *awae   1  
19 shoulder *suruk < Malay but with metaphoric meaning change    
22 to fear *ma-tahut   1  
23 blood *raa   1  
24 head *luha   84  
25 neck *wuyuŋ   131  
26 hair word info *wulu   31  
27 nose *uruŋ   1  
28 to breathe *mi-aeŋ   23  
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-imbu smell, sniff 36  
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-uruk smell, sniff, kiss 120  
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-imbu X    
30 mouth *wawa   1  
31 tooth *nife   1  
32 tongue *lela   4  
33 to laugh *mi-hehe   107  
34 to cry *t<um>aŋis   1  
35 to vomit *mandua < *maN- + *lua 8  
36 to spit *mandrura < maN- + *rura 1  
37 to eat *mi-h<um>an   1  
37 to eat *hinan   1  
38 to chew word info *mi-huta   69  
39 to cook word info *ma-handru   102  
40 to drink *(u)m-inum   1  
41 to bite *hehet   20  
41 to bite *kaiket      
42 to suck *mi-nunu   76  
43 ear *taliŋe   1  
43 ear *taliŋe   1  
44 to hear *man-dreŋe   1  
47 to yawn *maŋ-uaT   19  
48 to sleep *mandre *maN- + re 34  
49 to lie down word info *mandre (?) *maN- + re (?) 110  
50 to dream *maŋu-nufi   1  
51 to sit *mi-peDak   163  
52 to stand *mi-tsaŋgaŋ   101  
53 person/human being *(h)ulun   17  
54 man/male *lahi   2  
55 woman/female *wawe   1, 105  
56 child *anak   1  
59 mother *rene < *ra- + *ine 1, 93  
60 father *rae < *ra- + *aye 22, 50  
62 thatch/roof *tafu   15, 76  
63 name *aŋaran   1  
64 to say mi-teŋe ? not sure 52  
65 rope *tali   1  
66 to tie up, fasten *fehe   139  
67 to sew word info *yaiT   2  
68 needle *fanjaiT   45  
69 to hunt word info *mi-haya   87  
73 to steal maŋgalaT < *maN- + *halaT 57  
74 to kill *mamunu < *maN= + *wunu 1  
75 to die, be dead *mate   1  
76 to live, be alive *welum be alive, live 11  
76 to live, be alive *mi-aiŋ be alive, breathe 83  
77 to scratch word info *mi-hauT   44  
78 to cut, hack word info *manampak < *maN- + *tampak 25  
79 stick/wood *kubai   51  
80 to split word info *mamaki < *maN- *waki 95  
81 sharp *raŋit   43  
82 dull, blunt *lumbu   3  
82 dull, blunt *dumbu   29  
83 to work word info *mi-aeŋ   83  
84 to plant *mam-bule   1  
85 to choose *mi-pili   1  
86 to grow word info *mi-tumbu   1  
88 to squeeze word info *fia(C) weak etymology 76  
89 to hold word info *-ta(h)(a)N   55  
90 to dig *maŋgali < *maN= + *hali 1  
91 to buy *mi-wili   1  
92 to open, uncover *mi-su[ŋ]kaT   26  
93 to pound, beat word info *manutu < *maN- + *tutu 20  
94 to throw word info *manurak < *maN- + *turak 1, 118  
95 to fall word info *lawu   1  
98 egg *atuli   1  
99 feather *wulu   1  
100 wing *elaT   23  
101 to fly *tiliŋ   97  
102 rat *walawu   1  
103 meat/flesh *hena   55  
103 meat/flesh *nufu(T) < Bantu    
104 fat/grease *tawe   23  
105 tail *huhi   1, 59  
107 worm (earthworm) *(h)uleT   36  
109 mosquito *muuk   1, 111  
109 mosquito *mamu   1, 101  
109 mosquito *muuk X    
109 mosquito *mamu X    
111 fish *hena SA: ? not clear whether originally 'fish' or 'fish' and 'meat'    
114 leaf *rawen   1  
115 root *wahaT   2  
116 flower *wuŋe   1  
117 fruit *wua   1  
118 grass *aheT   34  
119 earth/soil *tane   1  
120 stone *watu   1  
122 water word info *ranu   10  
123 to flow *m-ili[N]   56  
127 woods/forest *ala   1  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
129 moon *wulan   1  
130 star *wasiaŋ compare Ma'anyan wawahiaŋ 90  
131 cloud word info *rahun   1  
132 fog *yawun   27  
133 rain *uran   1  
134 thunder *huDuk ~ *kuDuk   2  
135 lightning *helaT   1  
136 wind *aŋin   1  
137 to blow word info *mi-tiuk < Malay 1, 19  
138 warm word info *ma-fana   1  
139 cold word info *tsi(N)tsiN   131  
139 cold word info *tsi(N)tsiN X 131  
140 dry word info *maiN/*maiK   113  
141 wet *leeN (weak etymon) 118  
143 fire *afu   1  
144 to burn word info *(C)uru   98  
145 smoke word info *seDuk   90  
146 ash *lawenun   95  
147 black *ma-intem   1  
149 red *mena   1, 39  
152 small *kele   126  
153 big *bey   46  
155 long word info *lawa   27, 101  
156 thin word info *tifi   1  
156 thin word info *ma-nifi      
157 thick word info *manewe *maN- + *tewe 26  
158 narrow *ifiT   68  
159 wide *ma-lalak   27  
160 painful, sick *ma-rare   118  
161 shy, ashamed *heŋaT   80  
161 shy, ashamed *h<um>eŋaT   80  
162 old word info *anteT   72  
163 new *wau   1  
164 good *sua ancestral to all MLG dialects? 138  
165 bad, evil *rati   116  
166 correct, true *tuu   6  
167 night *alem   20  
168 day *andru   1  
169 year *taun   1  
170 when? word info *uwian   86  
170 when? word info *umbian   86  
171 to hide word info *wuni   1  
172 to climb word info *maŋ-anik   1  
173 at *aN-   22  
174 in, inside *aŋateni < *aŋ-ate-ni 'in heart of it' 74  
175 above *ambuni < *aŋ-wu-ni 'on top of it' 2, 27  
176 below *ambani < *aŋ-wa-ni 'at bottom of it' 1  
177 this *iti   10  
180 far *lawiT   100  
181 where? word info *aia   89  
182 I *i *ahu   1  
183 thou *iha   36  
184 he/she *i[y]e   1  
185 we word info *i *ahai exclusive 76  
185 we word info *i *tikaN inclusive 2, 75  
186 you *nau   9  
187 they *ire *u   1, 67  
188 what? word info *inun   61  
189 who? word info *i[y]a   59  
190 other *hafa   70  
192 and *si   66  
193 if *(l,r)aha *i   88  
194 how? word info *ahuan   70  
194 how? word info *akuri uncertain etymology 76  
196 to count *maŋ-isa   87  
197 One word info *irai   21  
198 Two word info *ru(a,e)   1  
199 Three word info *telu   1  
200 Four word info *efaT   1  
201 Five word info *lime   1  
202 Six word info *enem   1  
203 Seven word info *fitu   1  
204 Eight word info *walu   3  
205 Nine word info *siwe   5  
206 Ten word info *fulu   5  
207 Twenty word info *rua-m-pulu   3, 6  
208 Fifty word info *lima-m-pulu   1, 2  
209 One Hundred word info *yatuh   4.15  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *ma-hilala ? could be borrowed on account of *-a 18 (L?)
13 back word info *lambu/siN < Malay 47 L
13 back word info *ma-lutu < S. Sulawesi 108 L
45 eye *masu < Bantu 36 L
57 husband *wali < S. Sulawesi 88 L
58 wife *wali < S. Sulawesi 107 L
61 house *Daŋo < Banjar Malay 18 L
83 to work word info *mi-asa = work in general 94 L
87 to swell word info *mi-buntiŋ < Malay 49 L
97 bird *wuruŋ < Malay 17 L
106 snake *bibi *lawa *bibi 'animal' = Bantu; *lawa 'long' 70 L
108 louse word info *hau < Bantu 33 L
112 rotten word info *lu < S. Sulawesi 108 L
113 branch word info *rantsaŋ < Malay 63 L
121 sand *fasi[C] < Malay 18 L
125 salt *sira < Malay 1 L
136 wind *riwut < Malay 24 L
139 cold word info *maN- + *ha-tsiaka < S. Sulawesi 130 L
142 heavy ma-wesaT < Malay 1 L
148 white *futi   1 L
151 green *ma-itsu < Malay 25 L
154 short word info *fuhe < Bantu 47 L
191 all *abi < (Old) Malay *habis 32 L
195 no, not *ti < Malay 68 L
210 One Thousand word info *ariwu < Malay sa-ribu 5, 4 L
46 to see *ma-hita LW on account of -a? 1 L?

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