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Language: Proto Malagasy

Source/Author:  Sander Adelaar 
Notes:  Two stages can be distinguished for Proto Malagasy: PMLG1 (just before the migrations of Southeast Barito speakers to East Africa); PMLG2 (language ancestral to current MLG dialects; shows a Bantu substratum + Bantu loanwords). The current list represents MLG2. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Sander Adelaar  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Greater Barito:East:Malagasy 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 40 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
4 leg/foot      
21 to think      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
72 to hit word info      
96 dog      
110 spider      
124 sea      
126 lake      
150 yellow      
178 that      
179 near      
19 shoulder *suruk < Malay but with metaphoric meaning change    
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-imbu X    
41 to bite *kaiket      
103 meat/flesh *nufu(T) < Bantu    
109 mosquito *muuk X    
109 mosquito *mamu X    
111 fish *hena SA: ? not clear whether originally 'fish' or 'fish' and 'meat'    
156 thin word info *ma-nifi      
6 road/path *lalan   1  
9 to swim *mi-laŋu   1  
12 skin *hulit   1  
13 back word info *talukut reflex talutukŭ found in Sorabe literature 1  
15 bone *taulaŋ   1  
16 intestines *tinai   1  
17 liver *ate   1  
19 shoulder *awae   1  
22 to fear *ma-tahut   1  
23 blood *raa   1  
27 nose *uruŋ   1  
30 mouth *wawa   1  
31 tooth *nife   1  
34 to cry *t<um>aŋis   1  
36 to spit *mandrura < maN- + *rura 1  
37 to eat *mi-h<um>an   1  
37 to eat *hinan   1  
40 to drink *(u)m-inum   1  
43 ear *taliŋe   1  
43 ear *taliŋe   1  
44 to hear *man-dreŋe   1  
46 to see *ma-hita LW on account of -a? 1 L?
50 to dream *maŋu-nufi   1  
56 child *anak   1  
63 name *aŋaran   1  
65 rope *tali   1  
74 to kill *mamunu < *maN= + *wunu 1  
75 to die, be dead *mate   1  
84 to plant *mam-bule   1  
85 to choose *mi-pili   1  
86 to grow word info *mi-tumbu   1  
90 to dig *maŋgali < *maN= + *hali 1  
91 to buy *mi-wili   1  
95 to fall word info *lawu   1  
98 egg *atuli   1  
99 feather *wulu   1  
102 rat *walawu   1  
114 leaf *rawen   1  
116 flower *wuŋe   1  
117 fruit *wua   1  
119 earth/soil *tane   1  
120 stone *watu   1  
125 salt *sira < Malay 1 L
127 woods/forest *ala   1  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
129 moon *wulan   1  
131 cloud word info *rahun   1  
133 rain *uran   1  
135 lightning *helaT   1  
136 wind *aŋin   1  
138 warm word info *ma-fana   1  
142 heavy ma-wesaT < Malay 1 L
143 fire *afu   1  
147 black *ma-intem   1  
148 white *futi   1 L
156 thin word info *tifi   1  
163 new *wau   1  
168 day *andru   1  
169 year *taun   1  
171 to hide word info *wuni   1  
172 to climb word info *maŋ-anik   1  
176 below *ambani < *aŋ-wa-ni 'at bottom of it' 1  
182 I *i *ahu   1  
184 he/she *i[y]e   1  
198 Two word info *ru(a,e)   1  
199 Three word info *telu   1  
200 Four word info *efaT   1  
201 Five word info *lime   1  
202 Six word info *enem   1  
203 Seven word info *fitu   1  
109 mosquito *mamu   1, 101  
55 woman/female *wawe   1, 105  
109 mosquito *muuk   1, 111  
94 to throw word info *manurak < *maN- + *turak 1, 118  
137 to blow word info *mi-tiuk < Malay 1, 19  
208 Fifty word info *lima-m-pulu   1, 2  
149 red *mena   1, 39  
2 left *hawia[n]   1, 42  
105 tail *huhi   1, 59  
3 right *hawanan   1, 62  
187 they *ire *u   1, 67  
59 mother *rene < *ra- + *ine 1, 93  
122 water word info *ranu   10  
177 this *iti   10  
180 far *lawiT   100  
52 to stand *mi-tsaŋgaŋ   101  
39 to cook word info *ma-handru   102  
33 to laugh *mi-hehe   107  
58 wife *wali < S. Sulawesi 107 L
10 dirty *ma-lutu < S.Sulawesi 108  
13 back word info *ma-lutu < S. Sulawesi 108 L
112 rotten word info *lu < S. Sulawesi 108 L
76 to live, be alive *welum be alive, live 11  
49 to lie down word info *mandre (?) *maN- + re (?) 110  
140 dry word info *maiN/*maiK   113  
165 bad, evil *rati   116  
141 wet *leeN (weak etymon) 118  
160 painful, sick *ma-rare   118  
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-uruk smell, sniff, kiss 120  
152 small *kele   126  
139 cold word info *maN- + *ha-tsiaka < S. Sulawesi 130 L
25 neck *wuyuŋ   131  
139 cold word info *tsi(N)tsiN   131  
139 cold word info *tsi(N)tsiN X 131  
164 good *sua ancestral to all MLG dialects? 138  
66 to tie up, fasten *fehe   139  
62 thatch/roof *tafu   15, 76  
51 to sit *mi-peDak   163  
53 person/human being *(h)ulun   17  
97 bird *wuruŋ < Malay 17 L
1 hand *taŋan   18  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *ma-hilala ? could be borrowed on account of *-a 18 (L?)
61 house *Daŋo < Banjar Malay 18 L
121 sand *fasi[C] < Malay 18 L
47 to yawn *maŋ-uaT   19  
54 man/male *lahi   2  
67 to sew word info *yaiT   2  
115 root *wahaT   2  
134 thunder *huDuk ~ *kuDuk   2  
175 above *ambuni < *aŋ-wu-ni 'on top of it' 2, 27  
185 we word info *i *tikaN inclusive 2, 75  
41 to bite *hehet   20  
93 to pound, beat word info *manutu < *maN- + *tutu 20  
167 night *alem   20  
197 One word info *irai   21  
173 at *aN-   22  
60 father *rae < *ra- + *aye 22, 50  
28 to breathe *mi-aeŋ   23  
100 wing *elaT   23  
104 fat/grease *tawe   23  
136 wind *riwut < Malay 24 L
78 to cut, hack word info *manampak < *maN- + *tampak 25  
151 green *ma-itsu < Malay 25 L
92 to open, uncover *mi-su[ŋ]kaT   26  
157 thick word info *manewe *maN- + *tewe 26  
132 fog *yawun   27  
159 wide *ma-lalak   27  
155 long word info *lawa   27, 101  
82 dull, blunt *dumbu   29  
18 breast *nunu   3  
82 dull, blunt *lumbu   3  
204 Eight word info *walu   3  
207 Twenty word info *rua-m-pulu   3, 6  
14 belly *Duuk ? 31  
26 hair word info *wulu   31  
191 all *abi < (Old) Malay *habis 32 L
108 louse word info *hau < Bantu 33 L
48 to sleep *mandre *maN- + re 34  
118 grass *aheT   34  
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-imbu smell, sniff 36  
45 eye *masu < Bantu 36 L
107 worm (earthworm) *(h)uleT   36  
183 thou *iha   36  
32 tongue *lela   4  
209 One Hundred word info *yatuh   4.15  
81 sharp *raŋit   43  
77 to scratch word info *mi-hauT   44  
68 needle *fanjaiT   45  
153 big *bey   46  
13 back word info *lambu/siN < Malay 47 L
154 short word info *fuhe < Bantu 47 L
87 to swell word info *mi-buntiŋ < Malay 49 L
205 Nine word info *siwe   5  
206 Ten word info *fulu   5  
210 One Thousand word info *ariwu < Malay sa-ribu 5, 4 L
79 stick/wood *kubai   51  
64 to say mi-teŋe ? not sure 52  
89 to hold word info *-ta(h)(a)N   55  
103 meat/flesh *hena   55  
11 dust *wuwuk   56  
123 to flow *m-ili[N]   56  
73 to steal maŋgalaT < *maN- + *halaT 57  
189 who? word info *i[y]a   59  
166 correct, true *tuu   6  
5 to walk *mandeha *man- + *leha 61  
188 what? word info *inun   61  
113 branch word info *rantsaŋ < Malay 63 L
192 and *si   66  
158 narrow *ifiT   68  
195 no, not *ti < Malay 68 L
38 to chew word info *mi-huta   69  
7 to come *awe   70  
106 snake *bibi *lawa *bibi 'animal' = Bantu; *lawa 'long' 70 L
190 other *hafa   70  
194 how? word info *ahuan   70  
162 old word info *anteT   72  
174 in, inside *aŋateni < *aŋ-ate-ni 'in heart of it' 74  
42 to suck *mi-nunu   76  
88 to squeeze word info *fia(C) weak etymology 76  
185 we word info *i *ahai exclusive 76  
194 how? word info *akuri uncertain etymology 76  
35 to vomit *mandua < *maN- + *lua 8  
161 shy, ashamed *heŋaT   80  
161 shy, ashamed *h<um>eŋaT   80  
76 to live, be alive *mi-aiŋ be alive, breathe 83  
83 to work word info *mi-aeŋ   83  
24 head *luha   84  
170 when? word info *uwian   86  
170 when? word info *umbian   86  
69 to hunt word info *mi-haya   87  
196 to count *maŋ-isa   87  
57 husband *wali < S. Sulawesi 88 L
193 if *(l,r)aha *i   88  
181 where? word info *aia   89  
186 you *nau   9  
130 star *wasiaŋ compare Ma'anyan wawahiaŋ 90  
145 smoke word info *seDuk   90  
83 to work word info *mi-asa = work in general 94 L
80 to split word info *mamaki < *maN- *waki 95  
146 ash *lawenun   95  
8 to turn word info *kuliŋ   96  
101 to fly *tiliŋ   97  
144 to burn word info *(C)uru   98  

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