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Language: Proto Malagasy

Source/Author:  Sander Adelaar 
Notes:  Two stages can be distinguished for Proto Malagasy: PMLG1 (just before the migrations of Southeast Barito speakers to East Africa); PMLG2 (language ancestral to current MLG dialects; shows a Bantu substratum + Bantu loanwords). The current list represents MLG2. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Sander Adelaar  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Greater Barito:East:Malagasy 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 40 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *taŋan   18  
2 left *hawia[n]   1, 42  
3 right *hawanan   1, 62  
4 leg/foot      
5 to walk *mandeha *man- + *leha 61  
6 road/path *lalan   1  
7 to come *awe   70  
8 to turn word info *kuliŋ   96  
9 to swim *mi-laŋu   1  
10 dirty *ma-lutu < S.Sulawesi 108  
11 dust *wuwuk   56  
12 skin *hulit   1  
13 back word info *lambu/siN < Malay 47 L
13 back word info *talukut reflex talutukŭ found in Sorabe literature 1  
13 back word info *ma-lutu < S. Sulawesi 108 L
14 belly *Duuk ? 31  
15 bone *taulaŋ   1  
16 intestines *tinai   1  
17 liver *ate   1  
18 breast *nunu   3  
19 shoulder *awae   1  
19 shoulder *suruk < Malay but with metaphoric meaning change    
20 to know, be knowledgeable *ma-hilala ? could be borrowed on account of *-a 18 (L?)
21 to think      
22 to fear *ma-tahut   1  
23 blood *raa   1  
24 head *luha   84  
25 neck *wuyuŋ   131  
26 hair word info *wulu   31  
27 nose *uruŋ   1  
28 to breathe *mi-aeŋ   23  
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-imbu smell, sniff 36  
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-uruk smell, sniff, kiss 120  
29 to sniff, smell *maŋ-imbu X    
30 mouth *wawa   1  
31 tooth *nife   1  
32 tongue *lela   4  
33 to laugh *mi-hehe   107  
34 to cry *t<um>aŋis   1  
35 to vomit *mandua < *maN- + *lua 8  
36 to spit *mandrura < maN- + *rura 1  
37 to eat *mi-h<um>an   1  
37 to eat *hinan   1  
38 to chew word info *mi-huta   69  
39 to cook word info *ma-handru   102  
40 to drink *(u)m-inum   1  
41 to bite *hehet   20  
41 to bite *kaiket      
42 to suck *mi-nunu   76  
43 ear *taliŋe   1  
43 ear *taliŋe   1  
44 to hear *man-dreŋe   1  
45 eye *masu < Bantu 36 L
46 to see *ma-hita LW on account of -a? 1 L?
47 to yawn *maŋ-uaT   19  
48 to sleep *mandre *maN- + re 34  
49 to lie down word info *mandre (?) *maN- + re (?) 110  
50 to dream *maŋu-nufi   1  
51 to sit *mi-peDak   163  
52 to stand *mi-tsaŋgaŋ   101  
53 person/human being *(h)ulun   17  
54 man/male *lahi   2  
55 woman/female *wawe   1, 105  
56 child *anak   1  
57 husband *wali < S. Sulawesi 88 L
58 wife *wali < S. Sulawesi 107 L
59 mother *rene < *ra- + *ine 1, 93  
60 father *rae < *ra- + *aye 22, 50  
61 house *Daŋo < Banjar Malay 18 L
62 thatch/roof *tafu   15, 76  
63 name *aŋaran   1  
64 to say mi-teŋe ? not sure 52  
65 rope *tali   1  
66 to tie up, fasten *fehe   139  
67 to sew word info *yaiT   2  
68 needle *fanjaiT   45  
69 to hunt word info *mi-haya   87  
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
72 to hit word info      
73 to steal maŋgalaT < *maN- + *halaT 57  
74 to kill *mamunu < *maN= + *wunu 1  
75 to die, be dead *mate   1  
76 to live, be alive *welum be alive, live 11  
76 to live, be alive *mi-aiŋ be alive, breathe 83  
77 to scratch word info *mi-hauT   44  
78 to cut, hack word info *manampak < *maN- + *tampak 25  
79 stick/wood *kubai   51  
80 to split word info *mamaki < *maN- *waki 95  
81 sharp *raŋit   43  
82 dull, blunt *lumbu   3  
82 dull, blunt *dumbu   29  
83 to work word info *mi-asa = work in general 94 L
83 to work word info *mi-aeŋ   83  
84 to plant *mam-bule   1  
85 to choose *mi-pili   1  
86 to grow word info *mi-tumbu   1  
87 to swell word info *mi-buntiŋ < Malay 49 L
88 to squeeze word info *fia(C) weak etymology 76  
89 to hold word info *-ta(h)(a)N   55  
90 to dig *maŋgali < *maN= + *hali 1  
91 to buy *mi-wili   1  
92 to open, uncover *mi-su[ŋ]kaT   26  
93 to pound, beat word info *manutu < *maN- + *tutu 20  
94 to throw word info *manurak < *maN- + *turak 1, 118  
95 to fall word info *lawu   1  
96 dog      
97 bird *wuruŋ < Malay 17 L
98 egg *atuli   1  
99 feather *wulu   1  
100 wing *elaT   23  
101 to fly *tiliŋ   97  
102 rat *walawu   1  
103 meat/flesh *hena   55  
103 meat/flesh *nufu(T) < Bantu    
104 fat/grease *tawe   23  
105 tail *huhi   1, 59  
106 snake *bibi *lawa *bibi 'animal' = Bantu; *lawa 'long' 70 L
107 worm (earthworm) *(h)uleT   36  
108 louse word info *hau < Bantu 33 L
109 mosquito *muuk   1, 111  
109 mosquito *mamu   1, 101  
109 mosquito *muuk X    
109 mosquito *mamu X    
110 spider      
111 fish *hena SA: ? not clear whether originally 'fish' or 'fish' and 'meat'    
112 rotten word info *lu < S. Sulawesi 108 L
113 branch word info *rantsaŋ < Malay 63 L
114 leaf *rawen   1  
115 root *wahaT   2  
116 flower *wuŋe   1  
117 fruit *wua   1  
118 grass *aheT   34  
119 earth/soil *tane   1  
120 stone *watu   1  
121 sand *fasi[C] < Malay 18 L
122 water word info *ranu   10  
123 to flow *m-ili[N]   56  
124 sea      
125 salt *sira < Malay 1 L
126 lake      
127 woods/forest *ala   1  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
129 moon *wulan   1  
130 star *wasiaŋ compare Ma'anyan wawahiaŋ 90  
131 cloud word info *rahun   1  
132 fog *yawun   27  
133 rain *uran   1  
134 thunder *huDuk ~ *kuDuk   2  
135 lightning *helaT   1  
136 wind *aŋin   1  
136 wind *riwut < Malay 24 L
137 to blow word info *mi-tiuk < Malay 1, 19  
138 warm word info *ma-fana   1  
139 cold word info *tsi(N)tsiN   131  
139 cold word info *maN- + *ha-tsiaka < S. Sulawesi 130 L
139 cold word info *tsi(N)tsiN X 131  
140 dry word info *maiN/*maiK   113  
141 wet *leeN (weak etymon) 118  
142 heavy ma-wesaT < Malay 1 L
143 fire *afu   1  
144 to burn word info *(C)uru   98  
145 smoke word info *seDuk   90  
146 ash *lawenun   95  
147 black *ma-intem   1  
148 white *futi   1 L
149 red *mena   1, 39  
150 yellow      
151 green *ma-itsu < Malay 25 L
152 small *kele   126  
153 big *bey   46  
154 short word info *fuhe < Bantu 47 L
155 long word info *lawa   27, 101  
156 thin word info *tifi   1  
156 thin word info *ma-nifi      
157 thick word info *manewe *maN- + *tewe 26  
158 narrow *ifiT   68  
159 wide *ma-lalak   27  
160 painful, sick *ma-rare   118  
161 shy, ashamed *heŋaT   80  
161 shy, ashamed *h<um>eŋaT   80  
162 old word info *anteT   72  
163 new *wau   1  
164 good *sua ancestral to all MLG dialects? 138  
165 bad, evil *rati   116  
166 correct, true *tuu   6  
167 night *alem   20  
168 day *andru   1  
169 year *taun   1  
170 when? word info *uwian   86  
170 when? word info *umbian   86  
171 to hide word info *wuni   1  
172 to climb word info *maŋ-anik   1  
173 at *aN-   22  
174 in, inside *aŋateni < *aŋ-ate-ni 'in heart of it' 74  
175 above *ambuni < *aŋ-wu-ni 'on top of it' 2, 27  
176 below *ambani < *aŋ-wa-ni 'at bottom of it' 1  
177 this *iti   10  
178 that      
179 near      
180 far *lawiT   100  
181 where? word info *aia   89  
182 I *i *ahu   1  
183 thou *iha   36  
184 he/she *i[y]e   1  
185 we word info *i *ahai exclusive 76  
185 we word info *i *tikaN inclusive 2, 75  
186 you *nau   9  
187 they *ire *u   1, 67  
188 what? word info *inun   61  
189 who? word info *i[y]a   59  
190 other *hafa   70  
191 all *abi < (Old) Malay *habis 32 L
192 and *si   66  
193 if *(l,r)aha *i   88  
194 how? word info *ahuan   70  
194 how? word info *akuri uncertain etymology 76  
195 no, not *ti < Malay 68 L
196 to count *maŋ-isa   87  
197 One word info *irai   21  
198 Two word info *ru(a,e)   1  
199 Three word info *telu   1  
200 Four word info *efaT   1  
201 Five word info *lime   1  
202 Six word info *enem   1  
203 Seven word info *fitu   1  
204 Eight word info *walu   3  
205 Nine word info *siwe   5  
206 Ten word info *fulu   5  
207 Twenty word info *rua-m-pulu   3, 6  
208 Fifty word info *lima-m-pulu   1, 2  
209 One Hundred word info *yatuh   4.15  
210 One Thousand word info *ariwu < Malay sa-ribu 5, 4 L

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