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Language: Mangap-Mbula

Source/Author:  Bugenhagen 1995, Bugenhagen & Bugenhagen 2007 
Notes: 
Bugenhagen, Robert D., 1995. A grammar of Mangap-Mbula: An Austronesian language of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. (Pacific Linguistics C-101)

Bugenhagen, Salme & Robert D. Bugenhagen, 2007. Ro Ta Ipiyooto Sua Mbula Uunu: Mbula-English Dictionary. Ukarumpa: Summer Institute of Linguistics, Papua New Guinea Branch.

Some cognates are less obvious than they might be because the language has/had a vowel harmony rule that operates from right to left.
 
Problems:  There are complications in the historical phonology that result in an unusual (for Oceanic languages) contrast between voiced oral and voice prenasalised stops. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Malcolm Ross  Checked By: Malcolm Ross 
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Western Oceanic:North New Guinea:Ngero-Vitiaz:Vitiaz 
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Resources:

Change History:

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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand nama   1, 66  
2 left ŋas   19  
3 right woo-no      
4 leg/foot kumbu-      
5 to walk -pa   119  
6 road/path zaala   1  
7 to come -mar      
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim yaago      
10 dirty mukmuk   18  
11 dust gubu   59  
12 skin kuli-   1 1
13 back word info ndeme-   61  
14 belly kopo-   2  
15 bone tiro-   40  
16 intestines kau      
17 liver kete-   1  
18 breast zuzu-   1  
19 shoulder rege-      
20 to know, be knowledgeable -ute   35  
21 to think -kam ŋgar   92  
22 to fear -moto   1  
23 blood siŋ   59  
24 head ute-   70  
25 neck ŋgure-      
26 hair word info ruunu   40  
27 nose kuzu-   27, 55  
28 to breathe -kam miiri      
29 to sniff, smell -yoozo   114  
30 mouth kwo-   36  
31 tooth zoŋo-   56  
32 tongue mia-   7  
33 to laugh -seeŋge      
34 to cry -taŋ   1  
35 to vomit -lulu   8  
36 to spit -kiziu   19, 55  
37 to eat -kan   1  
38 to chew word info -ŋo   8  
38 to chew word info -seŋ   62  
39 to cook word info -noi   3  
40 to drink -win   1  
41 to bite -ŋa   77  
42 to suck -keeŋge      
43 ear talŋa-   1  
44 to hear -leŋ   1, 36  
45 eye mata-   1  
46 to see -re   13  
47 to yawn -momo   19  
48 to sleep ‐ur mata‐   1  
49 to lie down word info -keene   1  
50 to dream -keene-laama      
51 to sit -mbutul      
52 to stand -mender   1  
53 person/human being tomtom   68  
54 man/male tomooto   12, 14  
55 woman/female moori      
56 child lutu-   5, 93  
57 husband kusi-      
58 wife kusi- moori      
59 mother na-   1, 83  
60 father tama-   1  
61 house ruumu   1  
62 thatch/roof kooto   1  
63 name za-   66  
64 to say -so      
65 rope wooro-   2  
66 to tie up, fasten -mbit   132  
67 to sew word info -sese   2  
68 needle sor   1  
69 to hunt word info -mbaala      
70 to shoot word info -peene   1  
71 to stab, pierce -kuruumu   91  
72 to hit word info -pun   23  
73 to steal -kem   31  
74 to kill -kin-meete   2, 93  
75 to die, be dead -meete   1  
76 to live, be alive kalaŋa-      
77 to scratch word info -kiriu      
78 to cut, hack word info -taara   1  
79 stick/wood ke   1  
80 to split word info -kot-paala   88  
81 sharp mataa-na   36  
82 dull, blunt ndutŋa-   25  
83 to work word info uraata n. 41  
84 to plant -lu      
85 to choose -peikat      
86 to grow word info -tum   1  
87 to swell word info -pirpiri      
88 to squeeze word info -piizi   29  
89 to hold word info -teege   103  
90 to dig -kel   1  
91 to buy -ŋgiimi   17  
92 to open, uncover -peele      
93 to pound, beat word info -tut   20  
94 to throw word info -piri   126  
95 to fall word info -top   114  
96 dog me      
97 bird man   1  
98 egg kutulu-   1  
99 feather rumu-      
100 wing bege-   16  
101 to fly -rie      
102 rat kuzi   3  
103 meat/flesh buzur      
104 fat/grease mburu      
105 tail wi-   44  
106 snake mooto   12  
107 worm (earthworm) motmooto   10  
108 louse word info kut   1  
109 mosquito namnam   1  
110 spider kolopu      
111 fish ye   1  
112 rotten word info buzaa-na      
113 branch word info nama-      
114 leaf ru-   1  
115 root ura-   2  
116 flower manman      
117 fruit pwo-   1  
118 grass mbutmbuutu      
119 earth/soil toono   1  
120 stone pat   1  
121 sand magargaara   14  
122 water word info yok   21  
123 to flow -reere   16  
124 sea tai   1  
125 salt tai   20  
126 lake yok tatiliuŋana      
127 woods/forest su   120  
128 sky saamba   18  
129 moon puulu   1  
130 star pitik   1  
131 cloud word info miiri tiene      
132 fog ŋauŋau   106  
133 rain yaŋ      
134 thunder -kuruŋ v. 2, 63  
135 lightning bil   26  
136 wind miiri = 'air'    
137 to blow word info -wilaala      
138 warm word info -bayou      
139 cold word info -lomo      
140 dry word info -mamaaza   11  
141 wet -wizis      
142 heavy -pata   46, 80  
143 fire you   1  
144 to burn word info -tun   1  
145 smoke word info koi      
146 ash kokou   1  
147 black -gabgap   92  
148 white -kokou   38  
149 red -siŋsiŋ   50  
150 yellow ŋgaaraŋa-      
151 green ŋerekŋa-      
152 small ri      
153 big biibi      
154 short word info katŋa-      
155 long word info molo   12  
156 thin word info -mbin      
157 thick word info puŋpuŋ      
158 narrow -gogoomo      
159 wide -baba      
160 painful, sick -yoyou      
161 shy, ashamed ka‐miaŋ   1, 81  
162 old word info kolman 'old man'    
163 new popoŋa-   1, 26  
164 good ambaiŋa-      
165 bad, evil sananŋa-      
166 correct, true ŋonoono   95  
167 night mbeŋ   1  
168 day aigule      
169 year ndaama   80  
170 when? word info ŋiizi   1, 24  
171 to hide word info -ke      
172 to climb word info -se   2  
173 at ki   42  
174 in, inside lele-   1  
175 above saamba      
176 below meleebe      
177 this ti      
178 that tana      
178 that taŋgaa      
179 near kolou      
180 far molo   21  
181 where? word info sugoi      
182 I nio      
183 thou niwi      
184 he/she ni   1, 6  
185 we word info iti      
185 we word info niam      
186 you niom   54  
187 they zin   63  
188 what? word info so   1  
189 who? word info asiŋ   1, 28  
190 other mbaaga      
191 all ta-boozo-men      
192 and ma   2  
193 if -so((m)be)   75  
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count -nin1   86  
197 One word info ta   14  
198 Two word info ru      
199 Three word info tel   1  
200 Four word info paŋ   1, 67  
201 Five word info lama-ta   1  
202 Six word info lama-ta mi ta      
203 Seven word info lama-ta mi ru 'five-one and two'    
204 Eight word info lama-ta mi tel      
205 Nine word info lama-ta mi paŋ      
206 Ten word info laama-ru      
207 Twenty word info tomoo-ta   32  
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info munŋaana      
210 One Thousand word info      

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