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Language: Rurutuan

Source/Author:  David Meyer 
Notes:  Rurutuan has, and continues to be, heavily influenced by Tahitian. Most of the data was elicited in 1990. Ethnologue identifies Rurutuan as a dialect of Austral (Ethnologue code: AUT). 
Data Entry:  Typed By: David Meyer  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian:Nuclear:East:Central:Tahitic 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
175 above nuʔa   9  
191 all atoʔa (all) 13  
191 all paaʔaatoʔa (entirety) 13  
192 and ʔee   8  
146 ash reʔu   67  
173 at i   1  
13 back word info tautua   11  
165 bad, evil ʔino (bad) 9  
165 bad, evil manuenu (disgusting, vile)    
14 belly ʔoopuu   2  
176 below raro   8  
153 big raʔi   12  
97 bird manu   1  
147 black ʔereʔere   5  
23 blood toto   4  
15 bone ivi   52, 5  
113 branch word info ʔaamaʔa   2, 35 L?
18 breast tiitii breast 6  
18 breast ʔoouma chest 7, 50  
56 child tamariʔi child 6, 63  
56 child maʔuru nursing child    
131 cloud word info ata Modern Tahitian borrowing   L
139 cold word info toʔetoʔe   9  
166 correct, true tano correct 8  
166 correct, true ʔaafaro likely a recent Tahitian loanword as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred) 39 L
166 correct, true mau Tahitian Loan (true) 10 L
166 correct, true parau mau Tahitian Loan (the truth - literally 'true word') 10 L
168 day ao   1, 54  
168 day maʔana Tahitian Loan 8 L
10 dirty repo   9  
96 dog ʔuurii   7  
140 dry word info maroo   13  
82 dull, blunt tuumuu   10  
82 dull, blunt mania   11  
11 dust ʔuʔaʔuʔa loan from Tahitian X L
43 ear tariʔa   1  
119 earth/soil repo   11  
98 egg ʔua   5  
204 Eight word info vaʔu   3  
45 eye mata   1  
180 far aatea   14  
104 fat/grease miʔi   13  
60 father paapaa borrowing from French-MW   L
60 father metua taane   1, 9  
99 feather ʔuruʔuru   1  
208 Fifty word info pae ʔaʔuru Tahitian loan with hyper-nativization 9 L
143 fire auaʔi   1  
111 fish iʔa   1  
201 Five word info pae Tahitian Borrowing 9 L
116 flower tiare   7  
132 fog aʔinavai      
200 Four word info maʔa Tahitian borrowing 1, 66 L
200 Four word info ʔa   1, 66  
117 fruit maaʔa Tahitian borrowing meaning 'food'-MW   L
164 good maitaʔi   15  
118 grass matie   13  
151 green matie   1, 11  
26 hair word info rouru   40  
1 hand rima   1  
184 he/she ʔoona   5  
184 he/she ʔoia   1, 42  
24 head upoʔo human head 10  
24 head pao animal head 14  
142 heavy tiaʔa   84, 66  
61 house ʔare   14  
194 how? word info naaʔea   11, 51  
57 husband taane   14  
182 I vau   1, 21, 18  
182 I au   1, 21  
193 if mai te mea (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if mai te peu (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if mai te paʔau (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if ʔia (if - subjunctive marker)    
193 if ʔaʔiri (if - unreal proposition)    
174 in, inside roto   5  
16 intestines ʔaaʔau   12  
126 lake roto   6  
114 leaf raoʔere   1  
114 leaf rauʔere   1  
2 left ʔaui   1, 42  
4 leg/foot ʔaavae   1, 100  
135 lightning uira   2  
17 liver ʔupaʔa liver of all beings but fish 6 L
17 liver ate fish liver 1  
155 long word info roa   12  
108 louse word info ʔutu   1  
54 man/male taane   1, 11  
103 meat/flesh ʔiinaʔi (meat) 18  
103 meat/flesh ʔiʔo (flesh) 10  
129 moon ʔaavaʔe   6  
109 mosquito ramu   1  
59 mother maamaa borrowing?-MW 5 L?
59 mother metua vaʔine   4  
30 mouth vaʔa   1, 8  
63 name iʔoa   6  
158 narrow piri   11  
158 narrow oaoa   12  
179 near ʔatata   9  
25 neck ʔaʔii   20  
68 needle nira /nira/ is an English loanword   L
163 new ʔaapii Tahitian Loan - also this form does not begin with a glottal 7 L
167 night poo   1  
205 Nine word info iva   5, 66  
195 no, not ʔaore /ʔaore/ (not - perfect aspect) 11  
195 no, not e ʔore /e ʔore/ (not - imperfect aspect) 11  
27 nose puta eʔu   1, 2  
162 old word info ruuʔau possible Tahitian loan 11 L?
197 One word info taʔi   41  
209 One Hundred word info ʔaanere English loan 11 L
210 One Thousand word info tauatini English Loan 11 L
190 other vetaʔi   7  
160 painful, sick paʔo /paʔo/ (painful)    
160 painful, sick maʔi sick 1  
53 person/human being taʔata   1, 66  
133 rain ua   1  
102 rat ʔiore   12  
149 red ʔuraʔura   13  
3 right ʔatau   5, 40  
6 road/path poroomu road - Tahitian borrowing   L
6 road/path puruumu road   L
6 road/path ara road 1  
6 road/path araʔaraʔa winding road 1  
115 root aʔa   2  
65 rope taura   9  
112 rotten word info para   13  
125 salt miti   7  
121 sand one   1  
124 sea tai sea 1  
124 sea moana ocean 10  
203 Seven word info ʔitu   1  
81 sharp ʔoi   14, 66  
154 short word info poto   9  
19 shoulder paʔoʔi   8  
161 shy, ashamed maamaʔu (shy) 1  
161 shy, ashamed ʔaʔamaa (ashamed) 1  
202 Six word info ono   1  
12 skin ʔiri   1  
128 sky tuaraʔi   1  
152 small maaitiiti   121  
145 smoke word info auauaʔi   2  
106 snake ooʔii /ooʔii/ is a Greek loanword via /oofii/ from the Tahitian bible 77 L
110 spider ʔapuamaʔamaʔa Literally 'stupid wasp'    
130 star fetiʔa Tahitian loanword, as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred, and /fetiʔa/ instead of /fetuu/ suggests Pomare I taboo replacement 1 L
79 stick/wood raaʔau   1  
120 stone ʔooʔaʔi   3  
120 stone poʔatu   1, 19  
105 tail aero (tail of land animal or ray) 10  
105 tail ʔuʔu (fish tail) 13?  
105 tail vero (bird tail) 10  
206 Ten word info ʔaʔuru   5 L?
178 that teeraa      
62 thatch/roof taapoʔi ʔare Literally 'house cover' 10  
187 they raaua (dual) x  
187 they raatou (plural) 1, 72  
157 thick word info tuetue   10  
156 thin word info rairai   5  
177 this teie      
183 thou ʔoe   1  
199 Three word info toru   1  
134 thunder paatiri   14  
41 to bite paʔati (to bite) 1, 55  
41 to bite ʔooʔiniʔini (to cause to bite) 14  
137 to blow word info farara to blow - of the wind (likely a recent Tahitian loanword as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred) 9 L
137 to blow word info puʔi (to blow - with the mouth) 6  
28 to breathe ʔuti i te aʔo Literally 'to pull breath' 9  
144 to burn word info ʔaʔaʔama   62  
91 to buy ʔoʔo mai   7  
38 to chew word info ʔauʔau   8  
85 to choose maʔiti   6  
172 to climb word info piʔi   6  
7 to come ʔano mai   1, 23  
7 to come ʔaere mai /ʔaere/ is likely a Tahitian loanword 1, 42 L
39 to cook word info tunu (to cook) 9  
39 to cook word info tau (to cook in an underground oven) 10  
196 to count taiʔo   9  
34 to cry ʔeva   72  
78 to cut, hack word info taapuu Tahitian Loan 12 L
75 to die, be dead mate   1  
90 to dig ʔiri   1  
90 to dig paʔi      
50 to dream moemoeaa (to dream) 7, 27  
50 to dream ʔaʔaʔeimoe (to give a dream to someone) 7  
40 to drink unu   1  
37 to eat ʔai   1, 44  
95 to fall word info marua      
95 to fall word info topa   124  
22 to fear riʔariʔa tahitian borrowing? 8 L?
22 to fear mata'u   1  
22 to fear meʔameʔa      
123 to flow taʔe   10  
101 to fly rere (to fly) 11  
101 to fly ʔaʔamaraʔa (to cause to fly away)    
86 to grow word info tupu   1  
44 to hear ʔaʔaroʔo (to hear) 1  
44 to hear ʔiiroʔaroʔa (to hear it said that) 1  
171 to hide word info taapuni   1  
171 to hide word info ʔuna   1  
72 to hit word info taaʔiri   9  
89 to hold word info taapeʔa   11  
69 to hunt word info aʔuaʔu   7  
74 to kill ʔaʔamate   2  
74 to kill ta   8  
20 to know, be knowledgeable ʔite   12  
33 to laugh ata   7  
49 to lie down word info tiiraʔa (to lie down on one's back) 82  
49 to lie down word info tiipapa (to lie down on one's stomach) 21  
49 to lie down word info taarava (to lie down on one's back or stomach)    
76 to live, be alive ora   6  
92 to open, uncover ʔiriti (to open) 42  
92 to open, uncover ʔuaʔi (to uncover) 8  
84 to plant tanu   2  
93 to pound, beat word info tuʔi (to pound) 2  
93 to pound, beat word info paʔi (to pound taro into poopoi) 72  
64 to say parau   12  
77 to scratch word info raʔuraʔu   9  
46 to see naanaa   103  
67 to sew word info au to sew 14  
67 to sew word info nira loanword of English 'needle'   L
67 to sew word info tiiʔai to darn, patch 5  
70 to shoot word info teʔa Tahitian borrowing? 3 L
51 to sit araʔi Tahitian borrowing 17 L
51 to sit noʔo   16  
48 to sleep moe   10  
29 to sniff, smell ʔauʔa   10  
36 to spit tutuʔa possible Tahitian borrowing 120  
80 to split word info vaaʔi (to split) 4  
80 to split word info vaavaaʔi (to split) 4  
80 to split word info taatuʔaʔa (to split)    
80 to split word info naʔaʔa (to split in many places) 5, 72  
80 to split word info piʔi ai (to split pandanus leaves for weaving)    
88 to squeeze word info neʔineʔi   11  
88 to squeeze word info ʔuʔumu   14  
71 to stab, pierce paatia   9  
52 to stand tuu   2  
73 to steal ʔeiaa   7, 65  
42 to suck ʔote   9  
87 to swell word info ʔoru   6  
9 to swim ʔau   5  
21 to think manaʔo   7  
94 to throw word info taaora   10  
66 to tie up, fasten purei      
8 to turn word info tiipuʔu   10  
35 to vomit ruʔaʔi   8, 31  
5 to walk ʔano go 2  
5 to walk ʔaere go - likely a Tahitian loanword   L
5 to walk rimorimo to take a stroll    
5 to walk ʔano rimo ʔaere to take a stroll 6  
83 to work word info ʔatapu      
47 to yawn ʔaamama   19, 28  
32 tongue arero   15  
31 tooth niʔo   1  
207 Twenty word info piti ʔaʔuru Tahitian borrowing 28, 6 L
198 Two word info piti Tahitian borrowing 4 L
198 Two word info rua   1  
138 warm word info maaʔanaʔana /maaʔanaʔana/ (warm) 1, 72  
138 warm word info veravera /veravera/ (hot) 8  
122 water word info vai   2  
185 we word info taaua 1 dual incl. 1, 29  
185 we word info taatou 1 pl. incl. 1, 39  
185 we word info maaua (dual exclusive) 2, 29  
185 we word info maatou (plural exclusive) 2, 39  
141 wet rari   9  
141 wet maʔu   10  
188 what? word info aʔa   1  
170 when? word info aaʔea (when - in the future) 5  
170 when? word info inaaʔea (when - in the past) 5  
181 where? word info ʔea   3, 35  
181 where? word info ʔia   3, 35  
148 white teatea   8  
189 who? word info vai   1, 19  
159 wide ʔaʔano   7  
58 wife vaʔine   5, 68  
136 wind mataʔi   1, 66  
100 wing pererau   9  
55 woman/female vaʔine   1, 106, 116  
127 woods/forest ururaaʔau   15, 13  
107 worm (earthworm) toʔe   7  
169 year mataʔiti   7  
150 yellow reʔareʔa   10  
186 you ʔoorua dual x  
186 you ʔuurua dual x  
186 you ʔoutou plural 16  

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