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Language: Rurutuan

Source/Author:  David Meyer 
Notes:  Rurutuan has, and continues to be, heavily influenced by Tahitian. Most of the data was elicited in 1990. Ethnologue identifies Rurutuan as a dialect of Austral (Ethnologue code: AUT). 
Data Entry:  Typed By: David Meyer  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian:Nuclear:East:Central:Tahitic 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
5 to walk ʔaere go - likely a Tahitian loanword   L
5 to walk rimorimo to take a stroll    
6 road/path poroomu road - Tahitian borrowing   L
6 road/path puruumu road   L
22 to fear meʔameʔa      
49 to lie down word info taarava (to lie down on one's back or stomach)    
56 child maʔuru nursing child    
60 father paapaa borrowing from French-MW   L
66 to tie up, fasten purei      
67 to sew word info nira loanword of English 'needle'   L
68 needle nira /nira/ is an English loanword   L
80 to split word info taatuʔaʔa (to split)    
80 to split word info piʔi ai (to split pandanus leaves for weaving)    
83 to work word info ʔatapu      
90 to dig paʔi      
101 to fly ʔaʔamaraʔa (to cause to fly away)    
110 spider ʔapuamaʔamaʔa Literally 'stupid wasp'    
117 fruit maaʔa Tahitian borrowing meaning 'food'-MW   L
131 cloud word info ata Modern Tahitian borrowing   L
132 fog aʔinavai      
144 to burn word info ʔaʔaʔama      
160 painful, sick paʔo /paʔo/ (painful)    
165 bad, evil manuenu (disgusting, vile)    
177 this teie      
178 that teeraa      
193 if ʔia (if - subjunctive marker)    
193 if ʔaʔiri (if - unreal proposition)    
1 hand rima   1  
6 road/path ara road 1  
6 road/path araʔaraʔa winding road 1  
12 skin ʔiri   1  
17 liver ate fish liver 1  
22 to fear mata'u   1  
31 tooth niʔo   1  
40 to drink unu   1  
43 ear tariʔa   1  
44 to hear ʔaʔaroʔo (to hear) 1  
44 to hear ʔiiroʔaroʔa (to hear it said that) 1  
45 eye mata   1  
75 to die, be dead mate   1  
79 stick/wood raaʔau   1  
86 to grow word info tupu   1  
90 to dig ʔiri   1  
97 bird manu   1  
99 feather ʔuruʔuru   1  
108 louse word info ʔutu   1  
109 mosquito ramu   1  
111 fish iʔa   1  
114 leaf raoʔere   1  
114 leaf rauʔere   1  
121 sand one   1  
124 sea tai sea 1  
128 sky tuaraʔi   1  
130 star fetiʔa Tahitian loanword, as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred, and /fetiʔa/ instead of /fetuu/ suggests Pomare I taboo replacement 1 L
133 rain ua   1  
143 fire auaʔi   1  
160 painful, sick maʔi sick 1  
161 shy, ashamed maamaʔu (shy) 1  
161 shy, ashamed ʔaʔamaa (ashamed) 1  
167 night poo   1  
171 to hide word info taapuni   1  
171 to hide word info ʔuna   1  
173 at i   1  
183 thou ʔoe   1  
184 he/she ʔoia   1  
188 what? word info aʔa   1  
198 Two word info rua   1  
199 Three word info toru   1  
202 Six word info ono   1  
203 Seven word info ʔitu   1  
4 leg/foot ʔaavae   1, 100  
151 green matie   1, 11  
182 I vau   1, 21, 18  
185 we word info taaua 1 dual incl. 1, 29  
185 we word info taatou 1 pl. incl. 1, 39  
168 day ao   1, 54  
138 warm word info maaʔanaʔana /maaʔanaʔana/ (warm) 1, 72  
187 they raatou (plural) 1, 72  
55 woman/female vaʔine   1, 106, 116  
54 man/male taane   1, 11  
120 stone poʔatu   1, 19  
189 who? word info vai   1, 19  
27 nose puta eʔu   1, 2  
182 I au   1, 21  
7 to come ʔano mai   1, 23  
2 left ʔaui   1, 42  
7 to come ʔaere mai /ʔaere/ is likely a Tahitian loanword 1, 42 L
37 to eat ʔai   1, 44  
41 to bite paʔati (to bite) 1, 55  
53 person/human being taʔata   1, 66  
136 wind mataʔi   1, 66  
200 Four word info maʔa Tahitian borrowing 1, 66 L
200 Four word info ʔa   1, 66  
30 mouth vaʔa   1, 8  
60 father metua taane   1, 9  
8 to turn word info tiipuʔu   10  
24 head upoʔo human head 10  
29 to sniff, smell ʔauʔa   10  
39 to cook word info tau (to cook in an underground oven) 10  
48 to sleep moe   10  
62 thatch/roof taapoʔi ʔare Literally 'house cover' 10  
82 dull, blunt tuumuu   10  
94 to throw word info taaora   10  
103 meat/flesh ʔiʔo (flesh) 10  
105 tail aero (tail of land animal or ray) 10  
105 tail vero (bird tail) 10  
123 to flow taʔe   10  
124 sea moana ocean 10  
141 wet maʔu   10  
150 yellow reʔareʔa   10  
157 thick word info tuetue   10  
166 correct, true mau Tahitian Loan (true) 10 L
166 correct, true parau mau Tahitian Loan (the truth - literally 'true word') 10 L
46 to see naanaa   103  
13 back word info tautua   11  
82 dull, blunt mania   11  
88 to squeeze word info neʔineʔi   11  
89 to hold word info taapeʔa   11  
101 to fly rere (to fly) 11  
119 earth/soil repo   11  
158 narrow piri   11  
162 old word info ruuʔau possible Tahitian loan 11 L?
195 no, not ʔaore /ʔaore/ (not - perfect aspect) 11  
195 no, not e ʔore /e ʔore/ (not - imperfect aspect) 11  
209 One Hundred word info ʔaanere English loan 11 L
210 One Thousand word info tauatini English Loan 11 L
194 how? word info naaʔea   11, 51  
16 intestines ʔaaʔau   12  
20 to know, be knowledgeable ʔite   12  
64 to say parau   12  
78 to cut, hack word info taapuu Tahitian Loan 12 L
102 rat ʔiore   12  
153 big raʔi   12  
155 long word info roa   12  
158 narrow oaoa   12  
36 to spit tutuʔa possible Tahitian borrowing 120  
152 small maaitiiti   121  
95 to fall word info topa   124  
95 to fall word info marua   12?  
104 fat/grease miʔi   13  
112 rotten word info para   13  
118 grass matie   13  
140 dry word info maroo   13  
149 red ʔuraʔura   13  
191 all atoʔa (all) 13  
191 all paaʔaatoʔa (entirety) 13  
105 tail ʔuʔu (fish tail) 13?  
24 head pao animal head 14  
41 to bite ʔooʔiniʔini (to cause to bite) 14  
57 husband taane   14  
61 house ʔare   14  
67 to sew word info au to sew 14  
88 to squeeze word info ʔuʔumu   14  
134 thunder paatiri   14  
180 far aatea   14  
81 sharp ʔoi   14, 66  
32 tongue arero   15  
164 good maitaʔi   15  
127 woods/forest ururaaʔau   15, 13  
51 to sit noʔo   16  
186 you ʔoutou plural 16  
51 to sit araʔi Tahitian borrowing 17 L
103 meat/flesh ʔiinaʔi (meat) 18  
47 to yawn ʔaamama   19, 28  
5 to walk ʔano go 2  
14 belly ʔoopuu   2  
52 to stand tuu   2  
74 to kill ʔaʔamate   2  
84 to plant tanu   2  
93 to pound, beat word info tuʔi (to pound) 2  
115 root aʔa   2  
122 water word info vai   2  
135 lightning uira   2  
145 smoke word info auauaʔi   2  
185 we word info maaua (dual exclusive) 2, 29  
185 we word info maatou (plural exclusive) 2, 39  
113 branch word info ʔaamaʔa   2, 35 L?
25 neck ʔaʔii   20  
49 to lie down word info tiipapa (to lie down on one's stomach) 21  
207 Twenty word info piti ʔaʔuru Tahitian borrowing 28, 6 L
70 to shoot word info teʔa Tahitian borrowing? 3 L
120 stone ʔooʔaʔi   3  
204 Eight word info vaʔu   3  
181 where? word info ʔea   3, 35  
181 where? word info ʔia   3, 35  
166 correct, true ʔaafaro likely a recent Tahitian loanword as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred) 39 L
23 blood toto   4  
59 mother metua vaʔine   4  
80 to split word info vaaʔi (to split) 4  
80 to split word info vaavaaʔi (to split) 4  
198 Two word info piti Tahitian borrowing 4 L
26 hair word info rouru   40  
197 One word info taʔi   41  
92 to open, uncover ʔiriti (to open) 42  
9 to swim ʔau   5  
59 mother maamaa borrowing?-MW 5 L?
67 to sew word info tiiʔai to darn, patch 5  
98 egg ʔua   5  
147 black ʔereʔere   5  
156 thin word info rairai   5  
170 when? word info aaʔea (when - in the future) 5  
170 when? word info inaaʔea (when - in the past) 5  
174 in, inside roto   5  
184 he/she ʔoona   5  
206 Ten word info ʔaʔuru   5 L?
3 right ʔatau   5, 40  
205 Nine word info iva   5, 66  
58 wife vaʔine   5, 68  
80 to split word info naʔaʔa (to split in many places) 5, 72  
15 bone ivi   52, 5  
193 if mai te mea (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if mai te peu (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if mai te paʔau (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
5 to walk ʔano rimo ʔaere to take a stroll 6  
17 liver ʔupaʔa liver of all beings but fish 6 L
18 breast tiitii breast 6  
63 name iʔoa   6  
76 to live, be alive ora   6  
85 to choose maʔiti   6  
87 to swell word info ʔoru   6  
126 lake roto   6  
129 moon ʔaavaʔe   6  
137 to blow word info puʔi (to blow - with the mouth) 6  
172 to climb word info piʔi   6  
56 child tamariʔi child 6, 63  
146 ash reʔu   67  
21 to think manaʔo   7  
33 to laugh ata   7  
50 to dream ʔaʔaʔeimoe (to give a dream to someone) 7  
69 to hunt word info aʔuaʔu   7  
73 to steal ʔeiaa   7  
91 to buy ʔoʔo mai   7  
96 dog ʔuurii   7  
107 worm (earthworm) toʔe   7  
116 flower tiare   7  
125 salt miti   7  
159 wide ʔaʔano   7  
163 new ʔaapii Tahitian Loan - also this form does not begin with a glottal 7 L
169 year mataʔiti   7  
190 other vetaʔi   7  
50 to dream moemoeaa (to dream) 7, 27  
18 breast ʔoouma chest 7, 50  
34 to cry ʔeva   72  
93 to pound, beat word info paʔi (to pound taro into poopoi) 72  
106 snake ooʔii /ooʔii/ is a Greek loanword via /oofii/ from the Tahitian bible 77 L
19 shoulder paʔoʔi   8  
22 to fear riʔariʔa tahitian borrowing? 8 L?
38 to chew word info ʔauʔau   8  
74 to kill ta   8  
92 to open, uncover ʔuaʔi (to uncover) 8  
138 warm word info veravera /veravera/ (hot) 8  
148 white teatea   8  
166 correct, true tano correct 8  
168 day maʔana Tahitian Loan 8 L
176 below raro   8  
192 and ʔee   8  
35 to vomit ruʔaʔi   8, 31  
49 to lie down word info tiiraʔa (to lie down on one's back) 82  
142 heavy tiaʔa   84, 66  
10 dirty repo   9  
28 to breathe ʔuti i te aʔo Literally 'to pull breath' 9  
39 to cook word info tunu (to cook) 9  
42 to suck ʔote   9  
65 rope taura   9  
71 to stab, pierce paatia   9  
72 to hit word info taaʔiri   9  
77 to scratch word info raʔuraʔu   9  
100 wing pererau   9  
137 to blow word info farara to blow - of the wind (likely a recent Tahitian loanword as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred) 9 L
139 cold word info toʔetoʔe   9  
141 wet rari   9  
154 short word info poto   9  
165 bad, evil ʔino (bad) 9  
175 above nuʔa   9  
179 near ʔatata   9  
196 to count taiʔo   9  
201 Five word info pae Tahitian Borrowing 9 L
208 Fifty word info pae ʔaʔuru Tahitian loan with hyper-nativization 9 L
11 dust ʔuʔaʔuʔa loan from Tahitian X L
186 you ʔoorua dual x  
186 you ʔuurua dual x  
187 they raaua (dual) x  

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