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Language: Rurutuan

Source/Author:  David Meyer 
Notes:  Rurutuan has, and continues to be, heavily influenced by Tahitian. Most of the data was elicited in 1990. Ethnologue identifies Rurutuan as a dialect of Austral (Ethnologue code: AUT). 
Data Entry:  Typed By: David Meyer  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian:Nuclear:East:Central:Tahitic 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand rima   1  
2 left ʔaui   1, 42  
3 right ʔatau   5, 40  
4 leg/foot ʔaavae   1, 100  
7 to come ʔano mai   1, 23  
8 to turn word info tiipuʔu   10  
9 to swim ʔau   5  
10 dirty repo   9  
12 skin ʔiri   1  
13 back word info tautua   11  
14 belly ʔoopuu   2  
15 bone ivi   52, 5  
16 intestines ʔaaʔau   12  
19 shoulder paʔoʔi   8  
20 to know, be knowledgeable ʔite   12  
21 to think manaʔo   7  
22 to fear mata'u   1  
22 to fear meʔameʔa      
23 blood toto   4  
25 neck ʔaʔii   20  
26 hair word info rouru   40  
27 nose puta eʔu   1, 2  
29 to sniff, smell ʔauʔa   10  
30 mouth vaʔa   1, 8  
31 tooth niʔo   1  
32 tongue arero   15  
33 to laugh ata   7  
34 to cry ʔeva   72  
35 to vomit ruʔaʔi   8, 31  
37 to eat ʔai   1, 44  
38 to chew word info ʔauʔau   8  
40 to drink unu   1  
42 to suck ʔote   9  
43 ear tariʔa   1  
45 eye mata   1  
46 to see naanaa   103  
47 to yawn ʔaamama   19, 28  
48 to sleep moe   10  
51 to sit noʔo   16  
52 to stand tuu   2  
53 person/human being taʔata   1, 66  
54 man/male taane   1, 11  
55 woman/female vaʔine   1, 106, 116  
57 husband taane   14  
58 wife vaʔine   5, 68  
59 mother metua vaʔine   4  
60 father metua taane   1, 9  
61 house ʔare   14  
63 name iʔoa   6  
64 to say parau   12  
65 rope taura   9  
66 to tie up, fasten purei      
69 to hunt word info aʔuaʔu   7  
71 to stab, pierce paatia   9  
72 to hit word info taaʔiri   9  
73 to steal ʔeiaa   7, 65  
74 to kill ʔaʔamate   2  
74 to kill ta   8  
75 to die, be dead mate   1  
76 to live, be alive ora   6  
77 to scratch word info raʔuraʔu   9  
79 stick/wood raaʔau   1  
81 sharp ʔoi   14, 66  
82 dull, blunt tuumuu   10  
82 dull, blunt mania   11  
83 to work word info ʔatapu      
84 to plant tanu   2  
85 to choose maʔiti   6  
86 to grow word info tupu   1  
87 to swell word info ʔoru   6  
88 to squeeze word info neʔineʔi   11  
88 to squeeze word info ʔuʔumu   14  
89 to hold word info taapeʔa   11  
90 to dig ʔiri   1  
90 to dig paʔi      
91 to buy ʔoʔo mai   7  
94 to throw word info taaora   10  
95 to fall word info marua      
95 to fall word info topa   124  
96 dog ʔuurii   7  
97 bird manu   1  
98 egg ʔua   5  
99 feather ʔuruʔuru   1  
100 wing pererau   9  
102 rat ʔiore   12  
104 fat/grease miʔi   13  
107 worm (earthworm) toʔe   7  
108 louse word info ʔutu   1  
109 mosquito ramu   1  
111 fish iʔa   1  
112 rotten word info para   13  
113 branch word info ʔaamaʔa   2, 35 L?
114 leaf raoʔere   1  
114 leaf rauʔere   1  
115 root aʔa   2  
116 flower tiare   7  
118 grass matie   13  
119 earth/soil repo   11  
120 stone ʔooʔaʔi   3  
120 stone poʔatu   1, 19  
121 sand one   1  
122 water word info vai   2  
123 to flow taʔe   10  
125 salt miti   7  
126 lake roto   6  
127 woods/forest ururaaʔau   15, 13  
128 sky tuaraʔi   1  
129 moon ʔaavaʔe   6  
132 fog aʔinavai      
133 rain ua   1  
134 thunder paatiri   14  
135 lightning uira   2  
136 wind mataʔi   1, 66  
139 cold word info toʔetoʔe   9  
140 dry word info maroo   13  
141 wet rari   9  
141 wet maʔu   10  
142 heavy tiaʔa   84, 66  
143 fire auaʔi   1  
144 to burn word info ʔaʔaʔama   62  
145 smoke word info auauaʔi   2  
146 ash reʔu   67  
147 black ʔereʔere   5  
148 white teatea   8  
149 red ʔuraʔura   13  
150 yellow reʔareʔa   10  
151 green matie   1, 11  
152 small maaitiiti   121  
153 big raʔi   12  
154 short word info poto   9  
155 long word info roa   12  
156 thin word info rairai   5  
157 thick word info tuetue   10  
158 narrow piri   11  
158 narrow oaoa   12  
159 wide ʔaʔano   7  
164 good maitaʔi   15  
167 night poo   1  
168 day ao   1, 54  
169 year mataʔiti   7  
171 to hide word info taapuni   1  
171 to hide word info ʔuna   1  
172 to climb word info piʔi   6  
173 at i   1  
174 in, inside roto   5  
175 above nuʔa   9  
176 below raro   8  
177 this teie      
178 that teeraa      
179 near ʔatata   9  
180 far aatea   14  
181 where? word info ʔea   3, 35  
181 where? word info ʔia   3, 35  
182 I vau   1, 21, 18  
182 I au   1, 21  
183 thou ʔoe   1  
184 he/she ʔoona   5  
184 he/she ʔoia   1, 42  
188 what? word info aʔa   1  
189 who? word info vai   1, 19  
190 other vetaʔi   7  
192 and ʔee   8  
194 how? word info naaʔea   11, 51  
196 to count taiʔo   9  
197 One word info taʔi   41  
198 Two word info rua   1  
199 Three word info toru   1  
200 Four word info ʔa   1, 66  
202 Six word info ono   1  
203 Seven word info ʔitu   1  
204 Eight word info vaʔu   3  
205 Nine word info iva   5, 66  
206 Ten word info ʔaʔuru   5 L?
191 all atoʔa (all) 13  
161 shy, ashamed ʔaʔamaa (ashamed) 1  
165 bad, evil ʔino (bad) 9  
105 tail vero (bird tail) 10  
165 bad, evil manuenu (disgusting, vile)    
185 we word info maaua (dual exclusive) 2, 29  
187 they raaua (dual) x  
191 all paaʔaatoʔa (entirety) 13  
105 tail ʔuʔu (fish tail) 13?  
103 meat/flesh ʔiʔo (flesh) 10  
193 if mai te mea (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if mai te peu (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if mai te paʔau (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if ʔia (if - subjunctive marker)    
193 if ʔaʔiri (if - unreal proposition)    
103 meat/flesh ʔiinaʔi (meat) 18  
185 we word info maatou (plural exclusive) 2, 39  
187 they raatou (plural) 1, 72  
161 shy, ashamed maamaʔu (shy) 1  
105 tail aero (tail of land animal or ray) 10  
41 to bite paʔati (to bite) 1, 55  
137 to blow word info puʔi (to blow - with the mouth) 6  
41 to bite ʔooʔiniʔini (to cause to bite) 14  
101 to fly ʔaʔamaraʔa (to cause to fly away)    
39 to cook word info tau (to cook in an underground oven) 10  
39 to cook word info tunu (to cook) 9  
50 to dream moemoeaa (to dream) 7, 27  
101 to fly rere (to fly) 11  
50 to dream ʔaʔaʔeimoe (to give a dream to someone) 7  
44 to hear ʔiiroʔaroʔa (to hear it said that) 1  
44 to hear ʔaʔaroʔo (to hear) 1  
49 to lie down word info taarava (to lie down on one's back or stomach)    
49 to lie down word info tiiraʔa (to lie down on one's back) 82  
49 to lie down word info tiipapa (to lie down on one's stomach) 21  
92 to open, uncover ʔiriti (to open) 42  
93 to pound, beat word info paʔi (to pound taro into poopoi) 72  
93 to pound, beat word info tuʔi (to pound) 2  
80 to split word info naʔaʔa (to split in many places) 5, 72  
80 to split word info piʔi ai (to split pandanus leaves for weaving)    
80 to split word info vaaʔi (to split) 4  
80 to split word info vaavaaʔi (to split) 4  
80 to split word info taatuʔaʔa (to split)    
92 to open, uncover ʔuaʔi (to uncover) 8  
170 when? word info aaʔea (when - in the future) 5  
170 when? word info inaaʔea (when - in the past) 5  
195 no, not e ʔore /e ʔore/ (not - imperfect aspect) 11  
7 to come ʔaere mai /ʔaere/ is likely a Tahitian loanword 1, 42 L
195 no, not ʔaore /ʔaore/ (not - perfect aspect) 11  
138 warm word info maaʔanaʔana /maaʔanaʔana/ (warm) 1, 72  
68 needle nira /nira/ is an English loanword   L
106 snake ooʔii /ooʔii/ is a Greek loanword via /oofii/ from the Tahitian bible 77 L
160 painful, sick paʔo /paʔo/ (painful)    
138 warm word info veravera /veravera/ (hot) 8  
185 we word info taaua 1 dual incl. 1, 29  
185 we word info taatou 1 pl. incl. 1, 39  
24 head pao animal head 14  
60 father paapaa borrowing from French-MW   L
59 mother maamaa borrowing?-MW 5 L?
18 breast tiitii breast 6  
18 breast ʔoouma chest 7, 50  
56 child tamariʔi child 6, 63  
166 correct, true tano correct 8  
186 you ʔoorua dual x  
186 you ʔuurua dual x  
209 One Hundred word info ʔaanere English loan 11 L
210 One Thousand word info tauatini English Loan 11 L
17 liver ate fish liver 1  
5 to walk ʔano go 2  
5 to walk ʔaere go - likely a Tahitian loanword   L
24 head upoʔo human head 10  
166 correct, true ʔaafaro likely a recent Tahitian loanword as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred) 39 L
62 thatch/roof taapoʔi ʔare Literally 'house cover' 10  
110 spider ʔapuamaʔamaʔa Literally 'stupid wasp'    
28 to breathe ʔuti i te aʔo Literally 'to pull breath' 9  
17 liver ʔupaʔa liver of all beings but fish 6 L
11 dust ʔuʔaʔuʔa loan from Tahitian X L
67 to sew word info nira loanword of English 'needle'   L
131 cloud word info ata Modern Tahitian borrowing   L
56 child maʔuru nursing child    
124 sea moana ocean 10  
186 you ʔoutou plural 16  
36 to spit tutuʔa possible Tahitian borrowing 120  
162 old word info ruuʔau possible Tahitian loan 11 L?
6 road/path puruumu road   L
6 road/path ara road 1  
6 road/path poroomu road - Tahitian borrowing   L
124 sea tai sea 1  
160 painful, sick maʔi sick 1  
51 to sit araʔi Tahitian borrowing 17 L
198 Two word info piti Tahitian borrowing 4 L
200 Four word info maʔa Tahitian borrowing 1, 66 L
201 Five word info pae Tahitian Borrowing 9 L
207 Twenty word info piti ʔaʔuru Tahitian borrowing 28, 6 L
117 fruit maaʔa Tahitian borrowing meaning 'food'-MW   L
22 to fear riʔariʔa tahitian borrowing? 8 L?
70 to shoot word info teʔa Tahitian borrowing? 3 L
78 to cut, hack word info taapuu Tahitian Loan 12 L
168 day maʔana Tahitian Loan 8 L
166 correct, true parau mau Tahitian Loan (the truth - literally 'true word') 10 L
166 correct, true mau Tahitian Loan (true) 10 L
163 new ʔaapii Tahitian Loan - also this form does not begin with a glottal 7 L
208 Fifty word info pae ʔaʔuru Tahitian loan with hyper-nativization 9 L
130 star fetiʔa Tahitian loanword, as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred, and /fetiʔa/ instead of /fetuu/ suggests Pomare I taboo replacement 1 L
137 to blow word info farara to blow - of the wind (likely a recent Tahitian loanword as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred) 9 L
67 to sew word info tiiʔai to darn, patch 5  
67 to sew word info au to sew 14  
5 to walk rimorimo to take a stroll    
5 to walk ʔano rimo ʔaere to take a stroll 6  
6 road/path araʔaraʔa winding road 1  

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