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Language: Rurutuan

Source/Author:  David Meyer 
Notes:  Rurutuan has, and continues to be, heavily influenced by Tahitian. Most of the data was elicited in 1990. Ethnologue identifies Rurutuan as a dialect of Austral (Ethnologue code: AUT). 
Data Entry:  Typed By: David Meyer  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian:Nuclear:East:Central:Tahitic 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand rima   1  
2 left ʔaui   1, 42  
3 right ʔatau   5, 40  
4 leg/foot ʔaavae   1, 100  
5 to walk ʔano go 2  
5 to walk ʔaere go - likely a Tahitian loanword   L
5 to walk rimorimo to take a stroll x  
5 to walk ʔano rimo ʔaere to take a stroll x  
6 road/path poroomu road - Tahitian borrowing   L
6 road/path puruumu road x L
6 road/path ara road 1  
6 road/path araʔaraʔa winding road 1  
7 to come ʔano mai   1, 23  
7 to come ʔaere mai /ʔaere/ is likely a Tahitian loanword 1, 42 L
8 to turn word info tiipuʔu   10  
9 to swim ʔau   5  
10 dirty repo   9  
11 dust ʔuʔaʔuʔa loan from Tahitian X L
12 skin ʔiri   1  
13 back word info tautua   11  
14 belly ʔoopuu   2  
15 bone ivi   52, 5  
16 intestines ʔaaʔau   12  
17 liver ʔupaʔa liver of all beings but fish   L
17 liver ate fish liver 1  
18 breast tiitii breast 6  
18 breast ʔoouma chest 7  
19 shoulder paʔoʔi   8  
20 to know, be knowledgeable ʔite   12  
21 to think manaʔo   7  
22 to fear riʔariʔa tahitian borrowing? 8 L?
22 to fear mata'u   1  
22 to fear meʔameʔa      
23 blood toto   4  
24 head upoʔo human head 10  
24 head pao animal head 14  
25 neck ʔaʔii   20  
26 hair word info rouru   40  
27 nose puta eʔu   1, 2  
28 to breathe ʔuti i te aʔo Literally 'to pull breath' 9  
29 to sniff, smell ʔauʔa   10  
30 mouth vaʔa   1, 8  
31 tooth niʔo   1  
32 tongue arero   15  
33 to laugh ata   7  
34 to cry ʔeva   72  
35 to vomit ruʔaʔi   8, 31  
36 to spit tutuʔa possible Tahitian borrowing 19, 34?  
37 to eat ʔai   1, 44  
38 to chew word info ʔauʔau   8  
39 to cook word info tunu (to cook) 9  
39 to cook word info tau (to cook in an underground oven) 10  
40 to drink unu   1  
41 to bite paʔati (to bite) 1, 55  
41 to bite ʔooʔiniʔini (to cause to bite) 14  
42 to suck ʔote   9  
43 ear tariʔa   1  
44 to hear ʔaʔaroʔo (to hear) 1  
44 to hear ʔiiroʔaroʔa (to hear it said that) 1  
45 eye mata   1  
46 to see naanaa   103  
47 to yawn ʔaamama   19, 28  
48 to sleep moe   10  
49 to lie down word info tiiraʔa (to lie down on one's back) 82  
49 to lie down word info tiipapa (to lie down on one's stomach) 21  
49 to lie down word info taarava (to lie down on one's back or stomach)    
50 to dream moemoeaa (to dream) 7, 27  
50 to dream ʔaʔaʔeimoe (to give a dream to someone) 7  
51 to sit araʔi Tahitian borrowing 17 L
51 to sit noʔo   16  
52 to stand tuu   2  
53 person/human being taʔata   1, 66  
54 man/male taane   1, 11  
55 woman/female vaʔine   1, 106, 116  
56 child tamariʔi child 6, 63  
56 child maʔuru nursing child    
57 husband taane   14  
58 wife vaʔine   5, 68  
59 mother maamaa borrowing?-MW 5 L?
59 mother metua vaʔine   4  
60 father paapaa borrowing from French-MW   L
60 father metua taane   1, 9  
61 house ʔare   14  
62 thatch/roof taapoʔi ʔare Literally 'house cover' 10  
63 name iʔoa   6  
64 to say parau   12  
65 rope taura   9  
66 to tie up, fasten purei      
67 to sew word info au to sew 14  
67 to sew word info nira loanword of English 'needle'   L
67 to sew word info tiiʔai to darn, patch 5  
68 needle nira /nira/ is an English loanword   L
69 to hunt word info aʔuaʔu   7  
70 to shoot word info teʔa Tahitian borrowing? 3 L
71 to stab, pierce paatia   9  
72 to hit word info taaʔiri   9  
73 to steal ʔeiaa   7  
74 to kill ʔaʔamate   2  
74 to kill ta   8  
75 to die, be dead mate   1  
76 to live, be alive ora   6  
77 to scratch word info raʔuraʔu   9  
78 to cut, hack word info taapuu Tahitian Loan 12 L
79 stick/wood raaʔau   1  
80 to split word info vaaʔi (to split) 4  
80 to split word info vaavaaʔi (to split) 4  
80 to split word info taatuʔaʔa (to split)    
80 to split word info naʔaʔa (to split in many places) 5, 72  
80 to split word info piʔi ai (to split pandanus leaves for weaving)    
81 sharp ʔoi   14, 66  
82 dull, blunt tuumuu   10  
82 dull, blunt mania   11  
83 to work word info ʔatapu      
84 to plant tanu   2  
85 to choose maʔiti   6  
86 to grow word info tupu   1  
87 to swell word info ʔoru   6  
88 to squeeze word info neʔineʔi   11  
88 to squeeze word info ʔuʔumu   5  
89 to hold word info taapeʔa   11  
90 to dig ʔiri   1  
90 to dig paʔi      
91 to buy ʔoʔo mai   7  
92 to open, uncover ʔiriti (to open) 42  
92 to open, uncover ʔuaʔi (to uncover) 8  
93 to pound, beat word info tuʔi (to pound) 20, 2  
93 to pound, beat word info paʔi (to pound taro into poopoi)    
94 to throw word info taaora   10  
95 to fall word info marua   12?  
95 to fall word info topa   124  
96 dog ʔuurii   7  
97 bird manu   1  
98 egg ʔua   5  
99 feather ʔuruʔuru   1  
100 wing pererau   9  
101 to fly rere (to fly) 11  
101 to fly ʔaʔamaraʔa (to cause to fly away)    
102 rat ʔiore   12  
103 meat/flesh ʔiinaʔi (meat) 18  
103 meat/flesh ʔiʔo (flesh) 10  
104 fat/grease miʔi   13  
105 tail aero (tail of land animal or ray) 10  
105 tail ʔuʔu (fish tail) 13?  
105 tail vero (bird tail) 10  
106 snake ooʔii /ooʔii/ is a Greek loanword via /oofii/ from the Tahitian bible   L
107 worm (earthworm) toʔe   7  
108 louse word info ʔutu   1  
109 mosquito ramu   1  
110 spider ʔapuamaʔamaʔa Literally 'stupid wasp'    
111 fish iʔa   1  
112 rotten word info para   13  
113 branch word info ʔaamaʔa   2, 35 L?
114 leaf raoʔere   1  
114 leaf rauʔere   1  
115 root aʔa   2  
116 flower tiare   7  
117 fruit maaʔa Tahitian borrowing meaning 'food'-MW   L
118 grass matie   13  
119 earth/soil repo   11  
120 stone ʔooʔaʔi   3  
120 stone poʔatu   1, 19  
121 sand one   1  
122 water word info vai   2  
123 to flow taʔe   10  
124 sea tai sea 1  
124 sea moana ocean 10  
125 salt miti   7  
126 lake roto   6  
127 woods/forest ururaaʔau   15, 110  
128 sky tuaraʔi   1  
129 moon ʔaavaʔe   6  
130 star fetiʔa Tahitian loanword, as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred, and /fetiʔa/ instead of /fetuu/ suggests Pomare I taboo replacement   L
131 cloud word info ata Modern Tahitian borrowing   L
132 fog aʔinavai      
133 rain ua   1  
134 thunder paatiri   14  
135 lightning uira   2  
136 wind mataʔi   1, 66  
137 to blow word info farara to blow - of the wind (likely a recent Tahitian loanword as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred) 9 L
137 to blow word info puʔi (to blow - with the mouth) 6  
138 warm word info maaʔanaʔana /maaʔanaʔana/ (warm) 1, 72  
138 warm word info veravera /veravera/ (hot) 8  
139 cold word info toʔetoʔe   9  
140 dry word info maroo   13  
141 wet rari   9  
141 wet maʔu   10  
142 heavy tiaʔa   46, 66  
143 fire auaʔi   1  
144 to burn word info ʔaʔaʔama      
145 smoke word info auauaʔi   2  
146 ash reʔu   67  
147 black ʔereʔere   5  
148 white teatea   8  
149 red ʔuraʔura   13  
150 yellow reʔareʔa   10  
151 green matie   1, 11  
152 small maaitiiti   121  
153 big raʔi   12  
154 short word info poto   9  
155 long word info roa   12  
156 thin word info rairai   5  
157 thick word info tuetue   10  
158 narrow piri   11  
158 narrow oaoa   12  
159 wide ʔaʔano   7  
160 painful, sick paʔo /paʔo/ (painful)    
160 painful, sick maʔi sick 1  
161 shy, ashamed maamaʔu (shy) 1  
161 shy, ashamed ʔaʔamaa (ashamed) 1  
162 old word info ruuʔau possible Tahitian loan 11 L?
163 new ʔaapii Tahitian Loan - also this form does not begin with a glottal 7 L
164 good maitaʔi   15  
165 bad, evil ʔino (bad) 9  
165 bad, evil manuenu (disgusting, vile)    
166 correct, true tano correct 8?  
166 correct, true ʔaafaro likely a recent Tahitian loanword as /f/ -> /ʔ/ has not occurred) 39 L
166 correct, true mau Tahitian Loan (true) 10 L
166 correct, true parau mau Tahitian Loan (the truth - literally 'true word') 10 L
167 night poo   1  
168 day ao   1, 54  
168 day maʔana Tahitian Loan 8 L
169 year mataʔiti   7  
170 when? word info aaʔea (when - in the future) 5  
170 when? word info inaaʔea (when - in the past) 5  
171 to hide word info taapuni   1  
171 to hide word info ʔuna   1  
172 to climb word info piʔi   6  
173 at i   1  
174 in, inside roto   5  
175 above nuʔa   9  
176 below raro   8  
177 this teie   7, 1  
178 that teeraa   1  
179 near ʔatata   9  
180 far aatea   14  
181 where? word info ʔea   3, 35  
181 where? word info ʔia   3, 35  
182 I vau   1, 21, 18  
182 I au   1, 21  
183 thou ʔoe   1  
184 he/she ʔoona   5  
184 he/she ʔoia   1  
185 we word info taaua 1 dual incl. 1, 29  
185 we word info taatou 1 pl. incl. 1, 39  
185 we word info maaua (dual exclusive) 2, 29  
185 we word info maatou (plural exclusive) 2, 39  
186 you ʔoorua dual x  
186 you ʔuurua dual x  
186 you ʔoutou plural 16  
187 they raaua (dual) x  
187 they raatou (plural) 1, 72  
188 what? word info aʔa   1  
189 who? word info vai   1, 19  
190 other vetaʔi   7  
191 all atoʔa (all) 13  
191 all paaʔaatoʔa (entirety) 97  
192 and ʔee   8  
193 if mai te mea (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if mai te peu (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if mai te paʔau (if - literally 'like the thing/manner') 5?  
193 if ʔia (if - subjunctive marker)    
193 if ʔaʔiri (if - unreal proposition)    
194 how? word info naaʔea   11, 51  
195 no, not ʔaore /ʔaore/ (not - perfect aspect) 11  
195 no, not e ʔore /e ʔore/ (not - imperfect aspect) 11  
196 to count taiʔo   9  
197 One word info taʔi   14, 48  
198 Two word info piti Tahitian borrowing   L
198 Two word info rua   1  
199 Three word info toru   1  
200 Four word info maʔa Tahitian borrowing 1, 66 L
200 Four word info ʔa   1, 66  
201 Five word info pae Tahitian Borrowing 9 L
202 Six word info ono   1  
203 Seven word info ʔitu   1  
204 Eight word info vaʔu   3  
205 Nine word info iva   5, 66  
206 Ten word info ʔaʔuru   5 L?
207 Twenty word info piti ʔaʔuru Tahitian borrowing 28, 6 L
208 Fifty word info pae ʔaʔuru Tahitian loan with hyper-nativization 9 L
209 One Hundred word info ʔaanere English loan 11 L
210 One Thousand word info tauatini English Loan 11 L

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