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Language: Ainu

Source/Author:  John D. Bengtson 
Notes:  The data in this list are derived from three sources, two written by John D. Bengtson from the "Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory," and one by Rev. John Batchelor.

Titled "A Multilateral Look at Greater Austric" (2006) and "The 'Greater Austric' Hypothesis" from "Linguistic Fossils: Studies in Historical Linguistics and Paleolinguistics" (2010). Bengtson's articles seek to find cognates from a variety of languages from different Asiatic language families, including Ainu, Austroasiatic (= Munda - Mon-Khmer), Austronesian, Daic (= Tai-Kadai), Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao), Nihali. These families are shown to form one, huge hypothetical macro-family called "Austric." Batchelor's work is called the "An Ainu-English-Japanese Dictionary" (1905).

The Ainu language (spoken by the indigenous Ainu people of Hokkaido, Japan,Kuril Islands, Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka peninsula) is shown to have several likely cognates that would place it within Greater Austric, if not Austronesian.

Sources:

* Batchelor, John. 1905. An Ainu-English-Japanese Dictionary. Tokyo: Methodist Publishing House.

* Bengtson, John D. 2006. A Multilateral Look at Greater Austric. Mother Tongue (Journal) 11: 219-258.

* Bengtson, John D. 2010. Linguistic Fossils: Studies in Historical Linguistics and Paleolinguistics. (Languages in Time and Space, vol. 5. Chief Editor: Cindy Drover-Davidson.) Calgary: Octavia & Co. Press. 
Problems:  The sources from Bengtson do not contain full Swadesh word lists, so many of the words are taken from Rev. Batchelor's dictionary. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Kalvin Vasques  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 53
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 0
 
Classification:  Turkic:Eastern 
Map 
 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing all of 2 entries

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
175 above      
191 all      
192 and      
146 ash      
173 at      
13 back word info      
165 bad, evil      
14 belly      
176 below      
153 big      
97 bird chikap      
147 black      
23 blood *kEm      
15 bone *kEqu      
113 branch word info      
18 breast *tOO 'breast of woman'    
56 child      
131 cloud word info *niš      
139 cold word info      
166 correct, true      
168 day ko also 'to' or 'toho'    
10 dirty      
96 dog *sieta   49?  
140 dry word info *sat      
82 dull, blunt      
11 dust      
43 ear      
119 earth/soil      
98 egg *nOk 'egg, testicle'    
204 Eight word info *tupedhdan-      
45 eye *siki      
180 far      
104 fat/grease      
60 father      
99 feather *trAp Hokkaido rap(u), Kuril trap (also 'wing' in some dialects)    
208 Fifty word info      
143 fire *apOy 'fire, hearth': Hokkaido 'ape,' 'abe,' 'ambe,' Kamchatka 'āpĕh,' Kuril 'aboi'    
111 fish chep from Batchelor 1?  
201 Five word info ashikne      
116 flower      
132 fog      
200 Four word info *i-ne      
117 fruit      
164 good pirika from Batchelor    
118 grass      
151 green      
26 hair word info kiški      
1 hand *mOn 'hand' (in compounds)    
184 he/she      
24 head *pa      
142 heavy      
61 house      
194 how? word info      
57 husband      
182 I *ku      
193 if      
174 in, inside      
16 intestines      
126 lake      
114 leaf      
2 left      
4 leg/foot *kOkka 'knee'    
135 lightning      
17 liver      
155 long word info      
108 louse word info *ki      
54 man/male *kur 'man, person'    
103 meat/flesh      
129 moon      
109 mosquito      
59 mother      
30 mouth      
63 name      
158 narrow      
179 near      
25 neck *dekut Nairo 'tekuh' id. vs. (Hokkaido) 'rekutkoni' 'croup', 'rekutumbe' 'necklace, yoke'    
68 needle      
163 new      
167 night *mOn(=)rE 'to be late at night'    
205 Nine word info sinepehdan-      
195 no, not      
27 nose *Etu      
162 old word info      
197 One word info *si-ne with suf. '-ne' as in 'i-ne' (four)    
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      
190 other      
160 painful, sick      
53 person/human being ainu      
133 rain      
102 rat      
149 red      
3 right      
6 road/path *truu Yakumo, Saru 'ru', Raichiska 'ruu', Nairo 'tuu', 'tru', 'ru', Kuril 'tojru', 'tru', etc. 1?  
115 root *rit      
65 rope      
112 rotten word info      
125 salt      
121 sand *Ota Hokkaido òtá, Kuril ota, otà, etc.    
124 sea      
203 Seven word info *adehdan-      
81 sharp      
154 short word info      
19 shoulder      
161 shy, ashamed      
202 Six word info *i:hdan-      
12 skin *kAp   12  
128 sky *niš      
152 small      
145 smoke word info      
106 snake      
110 spider      
130 star      
79 stick/wood      
120 stone pit 'small stone, flint' (Hokkaido) 1  
105 tail      
206 Ten word info wam-pe      
178 that      
62 thatch/roof *kitai      
187 they      
157 thick word info      
156 thin word info      
177 this      
183 thou *E e=, e=ani    
199 Three word info re-      
134 thunder      
41 to bite      
137 to blow word info      
28 to breathe      
144 to burn word info *uguy Hokkaido 'uínà,' 'ùhúy'    
91 to buy      
38 to chew word info      
85 to choose      
172 to climb word info      
7 to come      
39 to cook word info      
196 to count      
34 to cry      
78 to cut, hack word info      
75 to die, be dead *day Saru 'ray,' Nairo 'tay,' etc., Kuril 'rai' 'kill' 1  
90 to dig      
50 to dream      
40 to drink      
37 to eat ae from Batchelor 1  
95 to fall word info      
22 to fear      
123 to flow      
101 to fly      
86 to grow word info      
44 to hear      
171 to hide word info      
72 to hit word info      
89 to hold word info      
69 to hunt word info      
74 to kill      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
33 to laugh      
49 to lie down word info      
76 to live, be alive      
92 to open, uncover      
84 to plant      
93 to pound, beat word info      
64 to say      
77 to scratch word info      
46 to see      
67 to sew word info      
70 to shoot word info      
51 to sit      
48 to sleep *mO mo-koro 'to sleep'    
29 to sniff, smell      
36 to spit      
80 to split word info      
88 to squeeze word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
52 to stand      
73 to steal      
42 to suck      
87 to swell word info      
9 to swim      
21 to think      
94 to throw word info      
66 to tie up, fasten      
8 to turn word info      
35 to vomit      
5 to walk      
83 to work word info      
47 to yawn      
32 tongue      
31 tooth *nii ni-maki 'tooth'    
207 Twenty word info      
198 Two word info *tuu      
138 warm word info      
122 water word info *wakka 'oouachka' = (Hokkaido) 'wacha', 'wazka', (Sakhalin) 'waka' 'water' (? 'wakka' / 'wahka' / 'wazka' < '*wa ̧ka' < '*wayka') 2  
185 we word info *ti= realized as /či/ in all dialects    
141 wet      
188 what? word info *nEE 'who, what': Hokkaido nen, neni 'who', nep 'what'    
170 when? word info      
181 where? word info      
148 white      
189 who? word info *nEE 'who, what': Hokkaido nen, neni 'who', nep 'what'    
159 wide      
58 wife      
136 wind      
100 wing *trAp Hokkaido rap(u), Kuril trap (also 'wing' in some dialects)    
55 woman/female      
127 woods/forest      
107 worm (earthworm)      
169 year      
150 yellow      
186 you      

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