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Language: Ainu

Source/Author:  John D. Bengtson 
Notes:  The data in this list are derived from three sources, two written by John D. Bengtson from the "Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory," and one by Rev. John Batchelor.

Titled "A Multilateral Look at Greater Austric" (2006) and "The 'Greater Austric' Hypothesis" from "Linguistic Fossils: Studies in Historical Linguistics and Paleolinguistics" (2010). Bengtson's articles seek to find cognates from a variety of languages from different Asiatic language families, including Ainu, Austroasiatic (= Munda - Mon-Khmer), Austronesian, Daic (= Tai-Kadai), Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao), Nihali. These families are shown to form one, huge hypothetical macro-family called "Austric." Batchelor's work is called the "An Ainu-English-Japanese Dictionary" (1905).

The Ainu language (spoken by the indigenous Ainu people of Hokkaido, Japan,Kuril Islands, Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka peninsula) is shown to have several likely cognates that would place it within Greater Austric, if not Austronesian.

Sources:

* Batchelor, John. 1905. An Ainu-English-Japanese Dictionary. Tokyo: Methodist Publishing House.

* Bengtson, John D. 2006. A Multilateral Look at Greater Austric. Mother Tongue (Journal) 11: 219-258.

* Bengtson, John D. 2010. Linguistic Fossils: Studies in Historical Linguistics and Paleolinguistics. (Languages in Time and Space, vol. 5. Chief Editor: Cindy Drover-Davidson.) Calgary: Octavia & Co. Press. 
Problems:  The sources from Bengtson do not contain full Swadesh word lists, so many of the words are taken from Rev. Batchelor's dictionary. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Kalvin Vasques  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 53
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 0
 
Classification:  Turkic:Eastern 
Map 
 

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Change History:

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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *mOn 'hand' (in compounds)    
2 left      
3 right      
4 leg/foot *kOkka 'knee'    
5 to walk      
6 road/path *truu Yakumo, Saru 'ru', Raichiska 'ruu', Nairo 'tuu', 'tru', 'ru', Kuril 'tojru', 'tru', etc. 1?  
7 to come      
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim      
10 dirty      
11 dust      
12 skin *kAp   12  
13 back word info      
14 belly      
15 bone *kEqu      
16 intestines      
17 liver      
18 breast *tOO 'breast of woman'    
19 shoulder      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
21 to think      
22 to fear      
23 blood *kEm      
24 head *pa      
25 neck *dekut Nairo 'tekuh' id. vs. (Hokkaido) 'rekutkoni' 'croup', 'rekutumbe' 'necklace, yoke'    
26 hair word info kiški      
27 nose *Etu      
28 to breathe      
29 to sniff, smell      
30 mouth      
31 tooth *nii ni-maki 'tooth'    
32 tongue      
33 to laugh      
34 to cry      
35 to vomit      
36 to spit      
37 to eat ae from Batchelor 1  
38 to chew word info      
39 to cook word info      
40 to drink      
41 to bite      
42 to suck      
43 ear      
44 to hear      
45 eye *siki      
46 to see      
47 to yawn      
48 to sleep *mO mo-koro 'to sleep'    
49 to lie down word info      
50 to dream      
51 to sit      
52 to stand      
53 person/human being ainu      
54 man/male *kur 'man, person'    
55 woman/female      
56 child      
57 husband      
58 wife      
59 mother      
60 father      
61 house      
62 thatch/roof *kitai      
63 name      
64 to say      
65 rope      
66 to tie up, fasten      
67 to sew word info      
68 needle      
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
72 to hit word info      
73 to steal      
74 to kill      
75 to die, be dead *day Saru 'ray,' Nairo 'tay,' etc., Kuril 'rai' 'kill' 1  
76 to live, be alive      
77 to scratch word info      
78 to cut, hack word info      
79 stick/wood      
80 to split word info      
81 sharp      
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info      
84 to plant      
85 to choose      
86 to grow word info      
87 to swell word info      
88 to squeeze word info      
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig      
91 to buy      
92 to open, uncover      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
95 to fall word info      
96 dog *sieta   49?  
97 bird chikap      
98 egg *nOk 'egg, testicle'    
99 feather *trAp Hokkaido rap(u), Kuril trap (also 'wing' in some dialects)    
100 wing *trAp Hokkaido rap(u), Kuril trap (also 'wing' in some dialects)    
101 to fly      
102 rat      
103 meat/flesh      
104 fat/grease      
105 tail      
106 snake      
107 worm (earthworm)      
108 louse word info *ki      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
111 fish chep from Batchelor 1?  
112 rotten word info      
113 branch word info      
114 leaf      
115 root *rit      
116 flower      
117 fruit      
118 grass      
119 earth/soil      
120 stone pit 'small stone, flint' (Hokkaido) 1  
121 sand *Ota Hokkaido òtá, Kuril ota, otà, etc.    
122 water word info *wakka 'oouachka' = (Hokkaido) 'wacha', 'wazka', (Sakhalin) 'waka' 'water' (? 'wakka' / 'wahka' / 'wazka' < '*wa ̧ka' < '*wayka') 2  
123 to flow      
124 sea      
125 salt      
126 lake      
127 woods/forest      
128 sky *niš      
129 moon      
130 star      
131 cloud word info *niš      
132 fog      
133 rain      
134 thunder      
135 lightning      
136 wind      
137 to blow word info      
138 warm word info      
139 cold word info      
140 dry word info *sat      
141 wet      
142 heavy      
143 fire *apOy 'fire, hearth': Hokkaido 'ape,' 'abe,' 'ambe,' Kamchatka 'āpĕh,' Kuril 'aboi'    
144 to burn word info *uguy Hokkaido 'uínà,' 'ùhúy'    
145 smoke word info      
146 ash      
147 black      
148 white      
149 red      
150 yellow      
151 green      
152 small      
153 big      
154 short word info      
155 long word info      
156 thin word info      
157 thick word info      
158 narrow      
159 wide      
160 painful, sick      
161 shy, ashamed      
162 old word info      
163 new      
164 good pirika from Batchelor    
165 bad, evil      
166 correct, true      
167 night *mOn(=)rE 'to be late at night'    
168 day ko also 'to' or 'toho'    
169 year      
170 when? word info      
171 to hide word info      
172 to climb word info      
173 at      
174 in, inside      
175 above      
176 below      
177 this      
178 that      
179 near      
180 far      
181 where? word info      
182 I *ku      
183 thou *E e=, e=ani    
184 he/she      
185 we word info *ti= realized as /či/ in all dialects    
186 you      
187 they      
188 what? word info *nEE 'who, what': Hokkaido nen, neni 'who', nep 'what'    
189 who? word info *nEE 'who, what': Hokkaido nen, neni 'who', nep 'what'    
190 other      
191 all      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count      
197 One word info *si-ne with suf. '-ne' as in 'i-ne' (four)    
198 Two word info *tuu      
199 Three word info re-      
200 Four word info *i-ne      
201 Five word info ashikne      
202 Six word info *i:hdan-      
203 Seven word info *adehdan-      
204 Eight word info *tupedhdan-      
205 Nine word info sinepehdan-      
206 Ten word info wam-pe      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      

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